Front Crawl Swimming Descriptive Essay

Catch And Pull In The Freestyle Stroke

how to go about (and how not to go about) improving your feel for the water - a much misunderstood subject.

Pushing water down at the front of your stroke not only ruins your catch, it also acts to sink your legs.

This is because your body acts like a see-saw in the water -

Pushing the water down lifts your front end up but pushes your legs down low into the water, creating lots of extra drag:

Does your swimming technique need more oomph? Do you lack propulsion? Long to get a better hold and feel for the water?

Everyone would love a better catch and pull technique. Not only will it make you faster, it will also make you more efficient. This is because a poor catch and pull wastes a lot of energy - get it right and you will swim at the same speed much more easily.

The single biggest difference between a normal swimmer and an elite swimmer is a vastly superior catch and pull. So why isn't everyone working on this secret of the freestyle stroke? Perhaps because it is the most misunderstood thing in swimming.

Many swimmers ignore their catch either unaware of how important it is or unsure of how to improve it. Others are going about trying to improve it the wrong way.

So what does that elusive great catch technique look like? More importantly, what does it feel like? In the article below we're going find out, starting out with some common misconceptions about the catch.


Let's dispel some common misconceptions about the catch you might have heard:

"When you get it right, you feel like you've got a massive grasp on the water, feeling a huge amount of resistance with each pull."

A good catch and pull drives you forward with less effort, not more.

INCORRECT. A good catch will have you caressing the water, locking on and pressing the water back behind you. Contrast this to what most swimmers do - pressing the water down at the front of the stroke rather than back. Pressing water down creates a lot of pressure on the palm because you are changing the direction of the water flow (from towards you to downwards). When you change to a good technique and start to pull the water back behind you - helping it on its way - you could well feel less pressure on the palm.

"You need to make your stroke as long as physically possible for your catch to be efficient."

Dropping your wrist.

Andrew drops his wrists - 'applying the brakes' - as he tries to overly lengthen his stroke. This is very common to see.

INCORRECT. In fact the opposite is true. In our experience when swimmers try and make their stroke as long as possible they normally over-reach at the front of their stroke. This is very hard to do without dropping the wrist and elbow. Dropping the wrist shows the palm of the hand forwards - into the water flow towards you. When you have this in your technique you feel pressure on the palm from the flow and most swimmers mistake this for a good catch. Ironically, dropping the wrist and elbow is one of the worst things you can do for your catch. We'll explain more below.

When you're swimming, don't try and over-reach at the front of the stroke. It's better to have slightly less reach and a vastly better catch. It'll make things more efficient and more rhythmic too.

You should pull through like you're describing an ‘S-Pull shape' under the body.

There are few things worse for your shoulders than thumb first hand entry.

INCORRECT. In centuries past, swimmers were taught to enter into the water thumb-first, then press out, sweep back in, and then finally back out as their hands swept past their thighs. This would make an S-shape. It was believed this technique would increase the length of your stroke as you were moving your hand on a longer pull-pathway under the body than if you pulled straight through. However, the benefits of doing this have since been disproved - it does not offer any advantage in propulsion versus a straight pull (see below), in fact it is slower.

Perhaps the greatest danger of an S shaped pull is that entering thumb-first is one of the leading causes of shoulder injury and pain. We suggest you avoid thumb-first entry like the plague.

OK, that was Swim Smooth's guide on how NOT to catch and pull, so how should I be doing it instead?

The Correct Catch And Pull Technique


As your hand enters into the water, take care to make sure it does so finger-tips first, lengthening forward in front of the same shoulder with the middle finger pointing the way to the far end of the pool.

Avoid crossing over the centre line, this is critical to keeping a high elbow catch and pull through later on.


As you reach forward with good body roll (roll being essential here), make sure you do so with the palm of the hand looking at the bottom of the pool, but with the finger tips angled slightly down.

This should be flexed from the wrist (not from the knuckles) we need to keep you palm flat and open, fingers closed loosely together.

Avoid "putting the brakes on" by dropping the wrist and pushing forward (you'd be surprised how many swimmers do this!)


At full reach and without dropping your elbow, feel like you are tipping your finger-tips over the front of a barrel (again flexing at the wrist), which will start the catch.

At the same time start bending the elbow and pressing back on the water with the forearm in a near-vertical position.

This is what keeping your elbows high on the catch is all about.

A memorable way to think about this action whilst you are swimming is to visualise a smiley face drawn on the palm of your hand. As you start the catch, tip your finger tips down and show that smiley face on your palm to the wall you just left. This is like locking your hand in place, effectively feeling-the-water.

You will now be pressing the water back behind you rather than pushing it down.


Concentrate your efforts on simply pressing water back behind you with the palm of your hand still looking back behind you.

Combined with good rotation, this pull through will lead to an efficient long stroke technique, but one that is not overly long.

Good job!


When you get the catch and pull through right it feels like a smooth flowing action, it feels easy but gives you great propulsion. You will have an awareness that you are using your larger pectoral and latissmus dorsi muscles (pecs and lats) to drive and time the movement.

Work on improving your catch and pull technique by avoiding the pitfalls and using the tips we described above.

Swim Smooth's Catch Masterclass

If you really want to perfect your catch, here's how!

Catch Masterclass is our brand new DVD for 2011, filmed with our new HD filming rig here in Perth, Australia. It features amazing footage of elite swimmers showing you exactly how they generate so much propulsion and how to make those changes in your stroke too.

Broken down into three easy to follow sections, we show you why the catch is so elusive and where you have gone wrong in the past.

Then we give you all the demonstrations, methods, drills, visualisations and training sessions you need to transform your catch.

Find out more here!

“The Catch Masterclass DVD is a superb rendering of how to find and develop the sometimes elusive key element of freestyle swimming, the catch. It is focused on one main (and vital) element of good swimming technique, with plenty of detail, but simplified so swimmers can work on developing a better swimming catch step by step and not get lost in those details.
This DVD is another winner from the Swim Smooth coaches. Five Stars!

PT Paddles - a very different sort of paddle. Great for your catch.

A Useful Tool To Develop Your Catch

PT Paddles are a great tool to help you develop your catch. Unlike a normal paddle, they are designed to remove the grip and propulsion from your hand as you use them.

This allows you to focus on that bent elbow catch and pull to develop propulsion from the forearm. When you remove them and add your hands back in, an improved catch and pull technique will have stuck. Sweet.

You can find out more about PT Paddles here.

The front crawl is a classic swimming stroke and is usually one of the first learned when you take swimming lessons. The front crawl is also known as freestyle swimming, and is the fastest of all the swimming strokes, according to the Swim City website. The front crawl is a basic swimming stroke, but it still requires a good deal of timing, coordination and technique for it to be effective. Consult your physician if you plan to start a swimming exercise program.

Video of the Day

Enter the water in the shallow end if you are inexperienced, just in case you have difficulty.

Reach straight out with both arms and both legs as you lie on your chest in the water. Flatten your right hand out and turn your palm away from your body. Your thumb should enter the water first and "catch the water," according to the Learn 4 Good website.

Pull your right hand back through the water in a semi-circle, with your elbow higher than your hand, and your hand pointing toward the center of your body.

Push your right hand underneath your body. Your palm will be at the side of your body when the push move is over.

Move your right elbow in a semi-circle in the direction you are swimming. Relax the hand and lower arm, letting them hang freely from your elbow, close to your body. This is the recovery stage. Begin your pull movement with the left hand while this is happening. Continue the pull-push-recovery movements by alternating arms at a consistent pace.

Kick your legs in a quick, up-and-down flutter motion, while your arms are pulling and pushing your body forward. Bend your knees slightly at the beginning, then kick the foot and lower leg downward. Try for six kicks per arm cycle.

Swim with your face down, and breathe to the side of your recovery arm when necessary. Most swimmers will adopt a breathing pattern that works best for them, such as a breath every three or four strokes.

  • Avoid rolling your body side to side. This extra motion slows your forward movement.
  • If you become fatigued, stop, take a short break and then continue. Always swim with a partner in case you get muscle cramps and need help getting out of the water.


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