Gestalt Psychology Essay
The purpose of this paper is to discuss Gestalt psychology including its origin, the people responsible for its development, and some of the basic principles or laws of Gestalt.
Gestalt began in Germany at the start of the 20th century during the time when structuralism was the dominant approach to dealing with perception. The structuralists believed that perception was created by a number of sensations that when combined would form the basis for the whole perception. Max Wertheimer, considered to be the father of Gestalt, thought the approach was wrong and came up with the concept that the whole was more important that the individual sensations (Goldstein, 178). Wertheimer used two research students, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler, to help him in his work and who later came to be known as the three founders of Gestalt psychology (Gestalt). The German name "Gestalt" relating to form or configuration, continues to be used as the name of this approach because there is no exact English translation. Gestalt is used to explain perception and perceptual organization.
Unlike the structuralism view of perception that used a bottoms up approach by adding up the parts, Gestalt stressed the importance of the whole as being more important that the sum of its parts. We often hear the phrase "The whole is often greater than the sum of individual parts," as one of the principals associated with Gestalt psychology. It is not the collection of individual pieces, but the interpretations of the whole that is important (Baron and Byrne, 65). To add to the importance of viewing the whole, Gestaltists developed a set of principles or laws of perceptual organization that explain how we organize small parts into wholes (Goldstein, 180). There are seven laws of Gestalt used to describe how we interpret what we see.
The Law of Pragnanz (German for "good figure") or Law of Simplicity.
This is known as the Gestalt law of Minimum Principle: ..."we do not perceive what is actually in the external world so much as we tend to organize our experience so that it is as simple as possible...simplicity is a principle that guides our perception and may even override the effects of previous experience" (Benjafield, 173). An example of this law can be seen in the drawing of the Olympic circles on the right. As we view the diagram we don't break everything down in to its smallest parts, but usually see the standard 5 circle Olympic symbol, or the most simple of all views.
Law of Similarity. When objects are grouped together, they appear to be similar. The drawing on the left shows an example of this law. The dots in the drawing above (a) are all the same while some columns of dots have been replaced with squares above (b).
Law of Continuity. Objects tend to continue shapes beyond their ending points. An example is shown on the right with the pipes of a...
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