Amor Propio Essay

The Filipino value system or Filipino values refers to the set of values or the value system that a majority of the Filipino have historically held important in their lives. This Philippine values system includes their own unique assemblage of consistent ideologies, moral codes, ethical practices, etiquette and cultural and personal values that are promoted by their society. As with any society though, the values that an individual holds sacred can differ on the basis of religion, upbringing and other factors.

As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity) and commercial relationships.[1]

Philosophical basis[edit]

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.[2] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[3]

According to the anthropologist Leonardo Mercado, the Filipino worldview is basically 'nondualistic'. Based on his linguistic analyses of Filipino value terms like loob (Cebuano buot), he concludes that Filipinos desire harmony, not only in interpersonal relationships, but also with nature and religion, while still remaining nondichotomous.[4]

"The Filipino wants to harmonize the object and the subject, while at the same time holding both as distinct."

— Elements of Filipino Philosophy (1974), Leonardo Mercado, SVD

Florentino Timbreza, a cultural philosopher, concludes in his book Pilosopiyang Pilipino (1982) that Filipino values are based on the significance of the world to man. Life experiences dictate the philosophy of the Filipino, augmented by other sources like proverbs, folk sayings, folk tales, and the like.[4]

Models of the Filipino values[edit]

F. Landa Jocano identified two models of the Filipino value system. The first is the exogenous model or the foreign model, while the second is the indigenous model or the traditional model. The foreign model is described to be a "legal and formal" model. The indigenous model is described as a "traditional and non-formal" model or guide but is deeply embedded in the subconscious of the Filipinos.[3]

The foreign model was inherited by Filipinos from Western cultures, particularly from the Spaniards and the Americans. An example of a foreign or exogenous influence is bureaucracy exhibited in the government of the Philippines.[3]

Elements and composition of Filipino values[edit]

Based on studies, surveys, opinions, anecdotes, and other literatures made by experts and researchers in relation to Filipino social values or Filipino core values, along with the Filipino character or Filipino identity of a person or an individual known as the Filipino, the Filipino value system are found to possess inherent key elements.

One can note how Hiya (propriety/dignity), Pakikisama(companionship/esteem), and Utang na loob(gratitude/solidarity), are merely Surface Values—readily seen and observed values exhibited and esteemed by many Filipinos. These three values are considered branches from a single origin—the actual Core Value of the Filipino Personality—Kapwa. It means 'togetherness', and refers to community, or not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people). The Surface Values spin off of the Core Value through the Pivotal Aspect of Pakikiramdam, or shared inner perception ("Feeling for another").

Other notable key elements or motivations are optimism about the future, pessimism with regards to present situations and events, the concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[5]

The values of Filipinos specifically upholds the following items: solidarity of the family unit, security of the Philippine economy, orientation to small-groups, personalism, the concepts of "loob" or "kalooban" (meaning "what’s inside the self", the "inner-self", or the "actual personal feelings of the self"), existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships, and the sensing of the feelings or needs of others (known as pakikiramdam). In a larger picture, these values are grouped into general clusters or "macroclusters": namely, the relationship cluster, the social cluster, the livelihood cluster, the inwardness cluster, and the optimism cluster.[5]

Enumeration of Filipino values[edit]

Human activities[edit]

This is the shared sense of identity and consciousness of the 'other'. It means treating others with respect and dignity as an equal, not someone below the individual.

Family Orientation[edit]

The basic and most important unit of a Filipino's life is the family. Unlike in Western countries, young Filipinos who turn 18 are not expected to move out of their parents' home. When a Filipino's parents are old and cannot take care of themselves, they are cared for in their children's homes and are very rarely brought by their children to Homes for the Aged. The practice of separating the elderly from the rest of the family, while common in Western countries, is often looked down upon in Filipino society. Family lunches with the whole clan with up to 50 people, extending until the line of second cousins, are not unusual. The Filipino puts a great emphasis on the value of family and being close to one's family members.

Joy and Humor[edit]

This famous trait is the ability of Filipinos to find humour in everything. It sheds light on the optimism and positivity of Filipinos in whatever situation they are in so as to remain determined in going through struggles or challenges. It serves as a coping technique, the same way a child who has fallen laughs at himself/herself to hide his/her embarrassment.[6]

Flexibility, Adaptability, Creativity[edit]

Studies show that Filipinos often have an aversion to a set of standardised rules or procedures; They are known to follow a Natural Clock or Organic sense of time—doing things in the time they feel is right. They are present-oriented: which means that one attends to a task or requirement at the time it is needed and does not worry much about future engagements. This allows the Filipino to adapt and be flexible in doing the tasks at times not bound to a particular schedule or timeframe. This allows them think on their feet and be creative in facing whatever challenge or task they have even when it is already right in front of them.

Faith and Religiosity[edit]

The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christians (mostly Roman Catholic Christians ), 10 percent Muslim, and 5 percent 'other' religions, including the Taoist-Buddhist religious beliefs of Chinese and the 'indigenous' animistic beliefs of some peoples in upland areas that resisted 300 years of Spanish colonial rule.[7] This is a reflection of the Filipinos' strong faith in God as seen in their various practices. This includes the numerous Church Holidays they observe, the customary (and obligatory) Sunday Mass, the individual's basis of their moral standpoints, the influence of the Church on the minds, actions, and opinions of the majority, importance of the Sacraments, Praying at almost any possible time of the day, the extreme practices during Holy Week,[8]

Ability to Survive[edit]

The Filipinos as a people who have been constantly under the rule of numerous powerful countries has over time, developed a sense of resourcefulness or the ability to survive with whatever they have. They have the extraordinary ability to make something out of almost nothing. If a Filipino was given just a screwdriver, plastic bags, and some tape, he would still be able to build a bird tree, especially for the sake of survival, and provided that he be allowed to hunt for some needed surrounding material.[9]

Hard Work and Industry[edit]

With resourcefulness comes hard work. Filipinos are very determined and persevering in accomplishing whatever they set their minds to.

Filipinos over the years have proven time and time again that they are a people with an industrious attitude. Sadly, this is seen by others as Filipinos being only useful as domestic helpers, working abroad to help their families in the country. This is also present in the country’s workforce particularly the farmers. Even with little support, technological weaknesses and the country’s seasonal typhoons, the Filipino farmer still strives to earn their daily meal.[10]


Foreigners who come to visit the Philippines speak of Filipinos going out of their way to help them when lost, or the heartwarming generosity of a Filipino family hosting a visitor in their poverty-stricken home. Meanwhile, most foreigners who attend Filipino gatherings abroad (which are frequently organized for hundreds of reasons) testify to the warmth and friendliness of Filipinos as they experience that feeling of “belongingness.” Indeed, the legendary Filipino hospitality is not limited to the Philippines. It is everywhere wherever there are Filipinos.[11]

Gender-specific values[edit]

In relation to parenthood, bearing male and female children depends on the preferences of the parents based on the expected roles that each gender would assume once grown up. Both genders are expected to become responsible members of the family and their society. Women in the Philippines are expected to become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children.[12]

Female Filipinos are also expected to lend a hand in household work. They are even anticipated to offer assistance after being married. On the other hand, Filipino men are expected to assume the role of becoming the primary source of income and financial support of his family.[12]

See also[edit]



External links[edit]

  • Dy, Jr. Manuel B. (editor). Philippine Philosophical Studies I, Values In Philippine Culture And Education, Series Iii. Asia, Volume 7, Cultural Heritage And Contemporary Change,
  • Andres, Tomas D. and Pilar B. Ilada-Andres. Management by Filipino Values, A Sequel to understanding Filipino Values; Understanding the Filipino; Understanding Filipino Values, A Management Approach; and Positive Filipino Values,
  • "Understanding Our Filipino Value System", The Filipino Mind (blog)
  • Philippine Core Values,
  • "The best traits of Filipinos that we should be proud of". Asian Journal. n.d. 
  • {{cite web |title=The Resourcefulness of the Filipino. |url=
  • Russel, S. (n.d.). "Christianity in the Philippines". 
  • Vila, A (n.d.). "Will these 10 traditional Holy Week practices survive?". 
Mano po tradition in the Philippines
  1. ^Social Values and Organization, Philippines, country
  2. ^Chris Rowthorn; Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4. 
  3. ^ abcHallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and NeedsArchived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine., The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, on pages 2 and 10,
  4. ^ abRolando M. Gripaldo (2005). Filipino cultural traits: Claro R. Ceniza lectures. CRVP. ISBN 978-1-56518-225-7. 
  5. ^ abTalisayon, Serafin. Filipino ValuesArchived 2016-04-17 at the Wayback Machine., Chapeter XIII, Teaching Values in the Natural and Physical Sc54654 iences in the Philippines, crvp.orgp
  6. ^Maggay, Melba (1993). "Pagbabalik-Loob". Moral Recovery and Cultural Reaffirmation. 
  7. ^"Christianity in the Philippines". Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  8. ^"Will these 10 traditional Holy Week practices survive?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  9. ^"Life and Times of the Filipino-American: The Resourcefulness of the Filipino". Life and Times of the Filipino-American. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  10. ^"ASIAN JOURNAL | The best traits of Filipinos that we should be proud of". Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  11. ^"Global nation Inquirer: What Filipinos can be proud of". Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  12. ^ abMLY. Keynote Speech, City College of San Francisco in the Conference on "The Filipino Family in the 21st Century: Issues and Challenges",, October 27, 2001

¿Ya superaste a tu ex? Uno de los procesos más difíciles para una persona es cerrar ciclos, sobre todo si es el final de una relación sentimental. Quizá sonará demasiado cliché decir que el tiempo es la mejor medicina, porque es claro que también es la que más duele.

 Lo cierto es que nadie se ha muerto de amor, aunque en ese momento pensemos que sí. Terminar un noviazgo puede parecer complejo pero no es imposible, solo es cosa de determinación, aceptación y deseo de superar el mal trago.

 Aunque parece que el proceso de “duelo” dura toda una eternidad no es así, aquí están algunas señales que te ayudarán a darte cuenta de que es momento de darle vuelta a la página y estás lista o listo para iniciar un nuevo ciclo en tu vida.

 1.-Ya no piensas constantemente en esa persona. Seguramente ni cuenta te diste en que momento ocurrió esto y mejor, este es la principal señal, pues ya no está todo el tiempo en tu mente.

2.- Cambias de look drásticamente. Como parte del inició de una nueva etapa de tu vida, decides hacerlo por completo, un corte de cabello, un nuevo tinte, una nueva manera de vestir, te arriesgas hacer cosas nuevas.

3.- Ya no la/lo stalkeas porque saber de tu ex ya no te interesa. Admitámoslo, las redes sociales han hecho más difícil el proceso de ruptura pues te lo recuerda todo el tiempo y dejan la abierta la opción de saber de esa persona. En el momento en el que dejas de preguntar por él o ella, ya no entras a sus redes y no te procupas por saber qué hace ¡Felicidades! Es la mejor señal para saber que lo has olvidado.

4.- Disfrutas de tu soltería. Lo más mínimos detalles de estar solo/sola ya no te molestan, al contrario, ya disfrutas de salir solo, no te preocupas tanto por arreglarte un domingo, incluso te deja de molestar que te pregunten por esa persona, y buscar divertirte con tus amigos.

5.- Te sientes feliz contigo, tu amor propio es más fuerte. Durante el proceso de duelo, tuviste tiempo de reflexionar sobre lo que salió mal, y analizar tus errores. Ya no te importa la opinión de los demás, pues recobraste el amor propio, las ganas de mejorar tu aspecto físico y salud.

6.- Te das el tiempo de realizar los objetivos que habías dejado olvidados. Regresar a estudiar, ir de viaje, practicar algún deporte, durante el tiempo de tu relación dejaste de lado tus principales metas y prioridades, por lo que cuando terminas a tu ex te das cuenta de que ha llegado el momento de retomarlos.

7.-Te entusiasma la idea de volver a enamorarte. Ya no te sientes culpable por volver a ver un futuro con alguien más. Pese a que no lo ves como algo que quieres inmediatamente, ya te ilusiona la posibilidad de conocer a alguien y volver a amar.

Sí, puede que esa persona te haya enseñado muchas cosas, es obvio que no lo/la olvidarás, pero si te identificas con estos puntos, ten por seguro que superaste esa etapa en tu vida, y estás listo/a para iniciar un nuevo ciclo. Recuerda ¡Querer es poder!


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