Turabian Dissertation Bibliography

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 02:26:18

Please note that while these resources reflect the most recent updates in the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Introduction

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

If you are asked to use the Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). Students should also refer to A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). Both are available in most writing centers and reference libraries and in bookstores.

Introduction to Notes

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

If a work includes a bibliography, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.

In contrast to earlier editions of CMOS, if you cite the same source two or more times consecutively, CMOS recommends using shortened citations. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,” as the corresponding note. If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space. 

Introduction to Bibliographies

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.

Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. 

Common Elements

All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

Author’s Names

The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.)

Titles

Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

Publication Information

The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

Punctuation

In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

For more information and specific examples, see the sections on Books and Periodicals.

Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography. For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Notes-Bibliography Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using notes-bibliography style. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above.

Book

One author

1. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64-65.

2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71.

Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

Two or more authors

1. Peter Morey and Amina Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.

2. Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60-61.

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by "et al."("and others"):

1. Jay M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 276.

2. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, 18.

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Editor or translator instead of author

1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91-92.

2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor or translator in addition to author

1. Jane Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. Robert Morrison (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), 311-12.

2. Austen, Persuasion, 315.

Austen, Jane. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Chapter or other part of a book

1. Angeles Ramirez, "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images," in Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. Faegheh Shirazi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010), 231.

2. Ramirez, "Muslim Women," 239-40.

Ramirez, angeles. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

1. William Cronon, foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012), ix.

2. Cronon, foreword, x-xi.

Cronon, William. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

1. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 183-84, Kindle.

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, accessed October 15, 2011, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

3. Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, 401.

5. Kurland and Lerner, Founders' Constitution.

6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 88.

Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage, 2010. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

Journal article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

1. Alexandra Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate," Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.

2. Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol," 157.

Bogren, Alexandra. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, accessed December 1, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

2. Anastacia Kurylo, "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum," China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.

3. Brown, "Consequentialize This," 761.

4. Kurylo, "Linsanity," 18-19.

Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

Magazine article

1. Jill Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.

2. Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," 54-55.

Lepore, Jill. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat," New York Times, January 23, 2013, accessed January 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

2. Bumiller and Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban."

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23, 2013. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

Book review

1. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754, accessed December 9, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History,752.

Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.

2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98.

Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

1. Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009).

2. Adelman, "Such Stuff as Dreams."

Adelman, Rachel. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

1. "Privacy Policy," Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

2. Google, "Privacy Policy."

Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27, 2012. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Gary Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?," The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed February 16, 2012, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

2. Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?"

Becker, Gary. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012.

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 (10:23 p.m.), accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa.

Author-Date Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 18 and 19 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the notes-bibliography system, click on the Notes-Bibliography tab above.

Book

One author

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Two or more authors

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. 2011. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(Morey and Yaqin 2011, 52)

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by "et al." ("and others"):

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. 2010. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press.

(Bernstein et al. 2010, 276)

Editor or translator instead of author

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor or translator in addition to author

Austen, Jane. 2011. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Chapter or other part of a book

Ramirez, Angeles. 2010. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

Cronon, William. 2012. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Wilkerson, Isabel. 2010. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. 2010. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

(Wilkerson 2010, 183-84)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Quinlan 2010, 211)

Journal article

In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

Bogren, Alexandra. 2011. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

Brown, Campbell. 2011. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. 2012. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

(Brown 2011, 752)

(Kurylo 2012, 16)

Magazine article

Lepore, Jill. 2011. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. 2013. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

(Bumiller and Shanker 2013)

Book review

Mokyr, Joel. 2011. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

Levin, Dana S. 2010. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified. If there is no date listed on the site, use the access date as the primary date in the citation.

Google. 2012. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Becker, Gary. 2012. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . ") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012)

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 [10:23 p.m.], accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa)

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