Nasalide Classification Essay

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Generic Name: flunisolide nasal (floo NIS oh lide)
Brand Names: Nasarel

What is Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

Flunisolide is a steroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.

Flunisolide nasal is used to treat nasal symptoms such as congestion, sneezing, and runny nose caused by seasonal or year-round allergies.

Flunisolide may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

What is the most important information I should know about Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to flunisolide, or if you have any type of untreated infection in your nose or sinuses.

Before using flunisolide, tell your doctor if you have asthma, tuberculosis, herpes simplex infection of your eyes, sores or ulcers in your nose, or if you have recently had an injury of or surgery on your nose.

It may take up to several days of using flunisolide before your symptoms improve. Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 3 weeks of treatment.

Steroid medicines can affect growth in children. Talk with your doctor if you think your child is not growing at a normal rate while using flunisolide nasal.

Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Call your doctor for preventive treatment if you are exposed to chicken pox or measles. These conditions can be serious or even fatal in people who are using steroid medication.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to flunisolide, or if you have any type of untreated infection in your nose or sinuses.

Before using flunisolide, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:

  • asthma;

  • tuberculosis or any other infection or illness;

  • herpes simplex infection of your eyes;

  • sores or ulcers inside your nose; or

  • if you have recently had injury of or surgery on your nose.

FDA pregnancy category C. This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether flunisolide passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use flunisolide nasal without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Steroid medicines can affect growth in children. Talk with your doctor if you think your child is not growing at a normal rate while using flunisolide nasal.

Do not give this medication to a child younger than 6 years old without the advice of a doctor.

How should I use Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

Use this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not use the medication in larger amounts, or use it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

This medication comes with patient instructions for safe and effective use. Follow these directions carefully. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

The usual dose for adults is 2 sprays into each nostril 2 or 3 times per day. Follow your doctor's instructions. Do not use more than 8 sprays in each nostril per day.

The usual dose for children is 1 spray into each nostril 3 times per day, or 2 sprays in each nostril twice per day. Follow your doctor's instructions. Children should not use more than 4 sprays in each nostril per day.

Before using the spray for the first time, you must prime the spray pump. Spray 5 to 6 test sprays into the air until a fine mist appears. Prime the spray pump any time you have not used your nasal spray for longer than 5 days, or if you have taken the pump apart for cleaning.

It may take up to several days of using this medicine before your symptoms improve. For best results, keep using the medication as directed. Talk with your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 3 weeks of treatment.

To be sure this medication is not causing harmful effects on your nose or sinuses, your doctor will need to check your progress on a regular basis. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Store this medication in an upright position at room temperature, away from moisture and heat.

Throw the medication away after you have used 200 sprays, even if there is still medicine left in the bottle.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Use the medication as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and wait until your next regularly scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

An overdose of flunisolide nasal is not expected to produce life-threatening symptoms. However, long-term use of high steroid doses can lead to symptoms such as thinning skin, easy bruising, changes in the shape or location of body fat (especially in your face, neck, back, and waist), increased acne or facial hair, menstrual problems, impotence, or loss of interest in sex.

What should I avoid while using Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

Avoid getting this medication in your eyes. If this does happen, rinse with water and call your doctor.

Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Call your doctor for preventive treatment if you are exposed to chicken pox or measles. These conditions can be serious or even fatal in people who are using steroid medication.

Nasalide (flunisolide nasal) side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
  • severe or ongoing nose bleed;

  • sores in the nose that won't heal; or

  • weakness, tired feeling, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • burning or stinging in your nose;

  • changes in your sense of smell;

  • minor nosebleed;

  • unusual taste after using the spray;

  • dry nose, cough, sore throat; or

  • hoarse voice.

This list is not complete and other side effects may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect.

See also:Side effects (in more detail)

What other drugs will affect Nasalide (flunisolide nasal)?

Before using flunisolide, tell your doctor if you are being treated with prednisone.

There may be other drugs that can interact with flunisolide nasal. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Next → Side Effects

Where can I get more information?

  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about flunisolide nasal.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Copyright 1996-2006 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.01. Revision Date: 03/24/2008 11:27:38 AM.

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انجمن نجوم آوااستار > زبان تخصصی نجوم > Astronomical discussions > Astronomical News


توجه ! این یک نسخه آرشیو شده میباشد و در این حالت شما عکسی را مشاهده نمیکنید برای مشاهده کامل متن و عکسها بر روی لینک مقابل کلیک کنید : Astronomical News

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-03-2010, 08:10 PM

I want to put this post to talk about latest news around astronomy, Its a new astronomical news page......
I'll appreciate if u help me with this post........

Thank u All

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-03-2010, 08:16 PM

Thu, 02 Dec 2010 23:00:00 -0600

Originally released Aug. 1, 2007, this Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter image shows an ridge in Mars' Terra Meridian that is most likely a former stream bed, now exposed in inverted relief.

The stream that formed this ridge must have been ancient as the ridge is buried by brighter rocks, which are themselves very old, having been thickly deposited and then heavily eroded. The Mars Exploration Rover

Opportunity landed in the same region of Mars, and the rocks it has examined are likely part of a sequence similar to that exposed here. The rocks exposed at the Opportunity landing site are mostly wind-deposited

sandstone, but show evidence of past water, reaching the surface at times.
Opportunity has access to only a few meters of a stack of sediments that is hundreds of meters thick.

NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-03-2010, 08:21 PM

NASA managers will hold a news conference at 11 a.m. CST today at the agency's Johnson Space Center in Houston to discuss the next space shuttle mission, STS-133, and the progress of repairs since Discovery's original launch delay Nov. 5.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-03-2010, 08:56 PM

Urgent News

Space shuttle Discovery's launch on the STS-133 mission has been targeted for no earlier than Feb. 3, 2011, to allow for more testing on the intertank stringers on the external tank.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-03-2010, 11:22 PM

NASA managers have targeted space shuttle Discovery's launch for no earlier than Feb. 3 at 1:34 a.m. EST. Shuttle managers determined more tests and analysis are needed before proceeding with the launch of the STS-133 mission to the International Space Station.

The Program Requirements Control Board met Thursday and reviewed engineering evaluations associated with cracks on two 21-foot-long,

U-shaped aluminum brackets, called stringers, on the shuttle's external tank. NASA repaired the cracks and reapplied foam to the

exterior of the stringers. Managers decided the analysis and tests required to launch Discovery safely are not complete. They are planning to conduct an instrumented test on the external fuel tank and structural evaluations on stringer test articles to determine whether the analysis is correct. Details and timelines for the tanking test are in work, but plans call for temperature and strain gauge measurements in the intertank region near the top of the tank during the test.

NASA will review and analyze the data from the tests before setting a launch date. Because of Discovery's delayed launch, the earliest

opportunity for the liftoff of the final scheduled shuttle mission, STS-134 on Endeavour, is April 1.


12-04-2010, 08:24 PM

hey:)...can i ask where are this news from?
i mean any special web sites?
and....we should discuss about this topic in English?

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-04-2010, 08:48 PM

hey:)...can i ask where are this news from?
i mean any special web sites?
and....we should discuss about this topic in English?

Hi ... Yeah. the news should be in English in this topic


12-04-2010, 08:55 PM take it easy :)
i thought u mean u r the English news...hahaaaaa :D...any way sry
and i'm ready 4 any help:)
and thx 4 provide a topic like this ...i'd really enjoy :))))

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-08-2010, 02:21 PM

The first demonstration flight of SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon capsule for NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program has been scheduled for Wednesday, Dec. 8, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-08-2010, 02:24 PM

NASA joined with Google, Microsoft, Yahoo! and the World Bank Dec. 3-4 to bring together computer experts looking for new approaches to disaster relief challenges.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-14-2010, 12:02 AM

An instrumented test of space shuttle Discovery’s external fuel tank now will be conducted no earlier than Friday, Dec. 17, because wind and cold conditions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center prevented technicians from completing preparations for the test.

The forecast for the next several days calls for continuing cold conditions at Launch Pad 39A at the Florida spaceport. Technicians worked through the weekend to place dozens of sensors on the tank's ribbed intertank region so engineers can analyze temperature and tank movement as the tank is filled with cryogenic propellants. All the strain gauges have been attached in the intertank region near the top of the external tank where the stringers are located. Once the remaining temperature sensors are in place and foam insulation has been reapplied, the tank will be filled with about 535,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to help verify repairs associated with cracks on the tops of two 21-foot-long, U-shaped aluminum brackets, called stringers, on the external tank and help engineers determine what caused the cracks in the first place.

Discovery’s STS-133 mission to the International Space Station. Discovery’s next launch opportunity is no earlier than Feb. 3 at 1:34 a.m. EST.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-14-2010, 12:07 AM

The Soyuz TMA-20 spacecraft is rolled out by train on its way to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Monday, Dec. 13, 2010, in Kazakhstan. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 26 Soyuz Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, NASA Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman and Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli is scheduled for Wednesday, Dec. 16. Image Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-14-2010, 12:10 AM

The call to stations at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is expected to begin this afternoon as the launch team takes its place for a tanking test scheduled to begin no earlier than Wednesday, Dec. 15. Technicians at Launch Pad 39A also are preparing space shuttle Discovery for the test which calls for dozens of instruments to be placed on the ribbed intertank region of Discovery's external tank.

The test will help verify repairs associated with cracks on the tops of two 21-foot-long, U-shaped aluminum brackets, called stringers, on the external tank and help engineers determine what caused the cracks in the first place. Technicians repaired the cracks and reapplied foam insulation on the stringers last month.

Discovery’s STS-133 mission to the International Space Station. Discovery’s next launch opportunity is no earlier than Feb. 3 at 1:34 a.m. EST.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-14-2010, 12:14 AM

NASA has awarded a contract with a potential value of $171 million to Lockheed Martin Corp. of Gaithersburg, Md., for support of International Space Station cargo mission services.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-14-2010, 12:17 AM

Hot Cities, Ice Volcanoes And California Quakes Among NASA News Highlights At American Geophysical Union Meeting

NASA researchers will present new findings on a wide range of Earth and space science topics at the 2010 fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-18-2010, 01:12 PM

How long is a minute? It is longer than you think when it is filled with fire, steam and noise – lots of noise.

On Dec. 17, at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, a team of operators from Stennis, Orbital Sciences Corporation and Aerojet filled 55 seconds with all three during the second verification test fire of an Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine. Once verified, the engine will be placed on a Taurus II space vehicle and used to launch a cargo supply mission to the International Space Station.

It is all part of NASA’s effort to partner with commercial companies to provide space flights through the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services joint research and development project. Through that program, Orbital has agreed to provide eight cargo supply missions to the space station by 2015. Stennis has partnered with Orbital to test the engines that will power the missions.

So, when Orbital’s Taurus II space vehicle lifts off, it will do so on engines proven flight worthy at Stennis. That is a big responsibility, but it is one which engine test personnel at Stennis are used to filling. They tested engines for every manned Apollo space flight and all of the engines used on more than 130 space shuttle missions.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-18-2010, 01:17 PM

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is allowing researchers to create the most precise and complete map to date of the moon's complex, heavily cratered landscape.

"This dataset is being used to make digital elevation and terrain maps that will be a fundamental reference for future scientific and human exploration missions to the moon," said Dr. Gregory Neumann of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "After about one year taking data, we already have nearly 3 billion data points from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the LRO spacecraft, with near-uniform longitudinal coverage. We expect to continue to make measurements at this rate through the next two years of the science phase of the mission and beyond. Near the poles, we expect to provide near-GPS-like navigational capability as coverage is denser due to the spacecraft's polar orbit." Neumann will present the map at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco December 17.

The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) works by propagating a single laser pulse through a Diffractive Optical Element that splits it into five beams. These beams then strike and are backscattered from the lunar surface. From the return pulse, the LOLA electronics determines the time of flight which, accounting for the speed of light, provides a precise measurement of the range from the spacecraft to the lunar surface. Range measurements, combined with accurate tracking of the spacecraft's location, are used to build a map revealing the contours of the lunar landscape. The five beams create a two-dimensional spot pattern that unambiguously reveals slopes. LOLA will also measure the spreading of the return pulse to get the surface roughness and the change in the transmitted compared to the return energy of the pulse to determine surface reflectance.

The new LOLA maps are more accurate and sample more places on the lunar surface than any available before. "The positional errors of image mosaics of the lunar far side, where direct spacecraft tracking – the most accurate -- is unavailable, have been one to ten kilometers (about 0.62 to 6.2 miles)," said Neumann. "We're beating these down to the level of 30 meters (almost 100 feet) or less spatially and one meter (almost 3.3 feet) vertically. At the poles, where illumination rarely provides more than a glimpse of the topography below the crater peaks, we found systematic horizontal errors of hundreds of meters (hundreds of yards) as well." In terms of coverage, the nearly three billion range measurements so far by LRO compare to about eight million to nine million each from three recent international lunar missions, according to Neumann. "They were limited to a mile or so between individual data points, whereas our measurements are spaced about 57 meters (about 187 feet) apart in five adjacent tracks separated by about 15 meters (almost 50 feet)."

"Recent papers have clarified some aspects of lunar processes based solely on the more precise topography provided by the new LOLA maps," adds Neumann, "such as lunar crater density and resurfacing by impacts, or the formation of multi-ring basins."

"The LOLA data also allow us to define the current and historical illumination environment on the moon," said Neumann. Lunar illumination history is important for discovering areas that have been shaded for long periods. Such places, typically in deep craters near the lunar poles, act like cold storage, and are capable of accumulating and preserving volatile material like water ice.

The landscape in polar craters is mysterious because their depths are often in shadow. The new LOLA dataset is illuminating details of their topography for the first time. "Until LRO and the recent Japanese Kaguya mission, we had no idea of what the extremes of polar crater slopes were," said Neumann. "Now, we find slopes of 36 degrees over several kilometers (several thousands of yards) in Shackleton crater, for example, which would make traverses quite difficult and apparently causes landslides. The LOLA measurements of shadowed polar crater slopes and their surface roughness take place at scales from lander size to kilometers. These measurements are helping the LRO science team model the thermal environment of these craters, and team members are developing temperature maps of them."

LRO and LOLA were built and are managed by NASA Goddard. The research was funded by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-19-2010, 06:58 PM

For NASA, 2010 was another year of new exploration, exciting discoveries, and important milestones.

From spaceflight, to science and technology; from understanding life here on Earth, to where we might find it elsewhere. From protecting our home planet, to inspiring the next generation of explorers.

This was "This Year at NASA."

The December 15th launch of the Soyuz spacecraft carrying Expedition 26 crew members Cady Coleman, Paolo Nespoli and Dimitry Kondratyev to the International Space Station capped another year of important milestones for the orbiting complex – and NASA’s space shuttle program, as the retirement of its fleet of orbiters approaches its retirement.


Astronaut: "All right give me a smile."

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams and Flight Engineer Max Suraev made a safe return to Earth in a Soyuz spacecraft which landed on the remote steppes of Kazakhstan.

Russian recovery teams worked in frigid temperatures to help the crew exit the spacecraft and begin their readjustment to Earth’s gravity.


Launch Announcer: "Liftoff of Alexander Skvortsov, Tracy Caldwell Dyson, and Mikhail Kornienko beginning their journey to the International Space Station."

The new members of the Expedition 23 crew began their journey to the International Space Station with a successful launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov, Flight Engineers Mikhail Kornienko and Tracy Caldwell Dyson will spend the next six months aboard the orbiting complex.

The crew of STS-131 returned home to Houston following their fifteen days in space aboard shuttle Discovery.

Mike Coates: "Nice landing. Well done."

A crowd of several hundred well-wishers greeted the seven astronauts at Ellington Field after their flight from the Kennedy Space Center one day after their safe landing.


Launch Announcer: "4-3-2-1, launch, launch, launch."

The first test of the fully integrated Launch Abort System for the Orion crew vehicle was successfully completed at the White Sands Missile Range on May 6. The Pad Abort 1 test is part of an ongoing mission to develop safer vehicles for human spaceflight applications.

Carrying a six-astronaut crew – STS-132 Commander Ken Ham, Pilot Tony Antonelli and Mission Specialists Garrett Reisman, Steve Bowen, Mike Good and Piers Sellers, space shuttle Atlantis concluded its final flight, a 12-day trip to the International Space Station with a smooth landing at the Kennedy Space Center.

"And Houston/Atlantis we have wheel stop. Copy wheel stop Atlantis. That landing was something that your air force crewmates should of really been proud of; that was pretty sweet."

Bill Hardwood: "I think what a lot of us are wondering about is making sure that everything is up and running again."

Tracy Caldwell: "Shannon and Doug removed the last jumpers today and put the racks back and so it’s all spic and span and it’s back to business as usual it seems."

The International Space Station’s cooling system was reactivated and finally back in normal operation.

Mission Control: "The pump is looking good."

Doug Wheelock: "Oh, Sweet! We got our station back!"

Three spacewalks by Expedition 24 Flight Engineers Doug Wheelock and Tracy Caldwell Dyson were needed to remove and replace a failed ammonia pump that had disabled one of the station’s two cooling loops on July 31.

Tracy Caldwell: "I’ll pull it."

Doug Wheelock: "There you can see it."

Mission Control: "Yep I see."


Launch Announcer: "3-2-1 fueling tower separates, booster ignition, and liftoff of the Soyuz Rocket with Alexander Kaleri, Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka began their journey to the International Space Station."

Following several days of traditional pre-launch activities and preparations, the Expedition 25 crew successfully launched aboard a Soyuz TMA-01M rocket on October 7, beginning a two-day journey to the International Space Station. Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly and Russian Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka are joining Commander Doug Wheelock and Flight Engineers Fyodor Yurchikhin and Shannon Walker, who have been in orbit since June.

The first SpaceX Falcon 9 demonstration launch for NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program lifted off on Wednesday, Dec. 8 from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

Launch Announcer: "We have liftoff of Falcon 9 stage one."

Known as COTS 1, the launch is the first flight of the Dragon spacecraft and the first commercial attempt to re-enter a spacecraft from orbit. The demonstration mission proved key capabilities such as launch, structural integrity of the Dragon spacecraft, on-orbit operation, re-entry, descent and splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.



As he did in 2009, President Obama made several calls from the White House to astronauts in space…

But 2010 also saw the president visit the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to present his plans for NASA and reaffirm his support for space exploration.


President Obama: "Hey guys!"

President Obama spoke with the crews of space shuttle Endeavour and the International Space Station from the Roosevelt Room of the White House.

President Obama: "I think I speak for the all young people here, and everybody back home how proud we are of you, how excited we are about the work that is being done on the Space Station, and how committed we are to continuing human space exploration in the future."


President Barack Obama made a trip to the Kennedy Space Center on Thursday to explain his plan for America’s space program. Accompanied by Florida Senator and former shuttle astronaut Bill Nelson, Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin, and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, President Obama addressed an audience comprised of elected officials, leaders from industry, academia and KSC employees.

President Obama: "I am 100% Committed to the mission of NASA and its future. (applause) Because broadening our capabilities in space will continue to serve our society in ways we can scarcely imagine. Because exploration will once more inspire wonder in a new generation: sparking passions, launching careers. And because, ultimately, if we fail to press forward in the pursuit of discovery, we are ceding our future, ceding that essential element of the American character."


Administrator Charlie Bolden joined President Obama at a special White House ceremony honoring educators from across the country for their excellence in mathematics, science teaching and mentoring. The event was part of the President’s “Educate to Innovate” campaign to boost student achievement in STEM subjects: science, technology, engineering and math.

President Obama: "I've challenged the scientific community to think of new and creative ways to engage young people in their fields. That's why we launched the "Educate to Innovate" campaign -- a nationwide effort by citizens, non-for-profits, universities, and companies from across America to help us move to the top of the pack in math and science education."



Through a combination of hands-on projects, creative partnerships and public appearances, NASA continued to promote the education of our youth in science, technology, engineering, and math, the STEM disciplines so important to our nation’s future.

NASA is teaming with Univision Communications Inc, the Department of Education and other organizations to support Univision’s initiative to improve Hispanic students high school graduation rates, prepare for college and encourage them to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Charlie Bolden: "It’s a great extension of the efforts that we’ve been making to foster STEM education to support the President’s ‘Educate to Innovate’ program, the ‘Race to the Top’; it all fits together for us. This program is designated, primarily, to reach kids in the high school area, but I think with our ‘Summer of Innovation’ that’s focused on kids in middle schools, they are kind of a perfect marriage."

Teachers became students while participating in the second annual NASA Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics -- STEM -- Educators, Workshops held this year in Charlotte, N.C. The 40-session workshop provided elementary, middle and high school teachers with creative hands-on ways to incorporate NASA content into their classrooms.


About 25 seventh-grade girls from area middle schools got up close and personal with unique aircraft and high technology when they participated in a "Tech Trek" tour of the Dryden Flight Research Center.

The Tech Trek, to develop interest and excitement about math and science and self-confidence among middle-school girls, included tours of Dryden's main aircraft hangar and several specialized research and support aircraft.

Dozens of teachers are conducting real science in an extreme environment. Through Ames Research Center’s Spaceward Bound project, NASA has sent teachers to California State University’s Desert Study Center in Zzyzx. (nat) Here, on the edge of the barren Mojave Desert, they help conduct NASA-related field science. The data and knowledge they glean at Zzyzx will be used to develop experiments, demonstrations and lesson plans for their students.


NASA Administrator Charles Bolden joined with other NASA volunteers in helping these fifth graders become rocket scientists for day.

The students at the Langdon Elementary School in Washington built and test flew their own paper rockets using a high-power paper rocket launcher.


Leland Melvin: "Please give a warm welcome to Charlie Bolden."

Charles Bolden: "Allright, Allright, Allright. Hi ya doing?"

More than 250 students joined with astronaut Leland Melvin and Administrator Charles Bolden at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to help kickoff NASA’s Summer of Innovation.

Bolden: "What we want to do this summer through the Summer of Innovation is take young men and women like Malik and we want them understand, yeah science and math may be difficult, but you can learn it."

Also, over the Labor Day weekend, actor/rapper Mos Def and astronaut Leland Melvin teamed up to share NASA’s Summer of Innovation program with young people at the Instituting Science in Schools Science and Cultural Festival at the Chabot Observatory in Oakland, California, and people attending the Tom Joyner Morning Show Family Reunion in Orlando, Florida.



AL NARRATION: Once again, NASA employees proved the importance of community involvement. Centers threw open their doors to neighbors, and reached out to make new friends for the agency. NASA also provided technological assistance to a region of our country threatened with ecological disaster, and expertise to another member of the global community in their time of grave need.

NASA assets continue to help scientists track two events causing worldwide environmental and economic concern. NASA’s instrumented research aircraft, the Earth Resources-2, or ER-2, has been deployed to the Gulf of Mexico to do flyovers of the Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill and the coastline it threatens. The agency is also making extra satellite observations and conducting additional data processing to help U.S. disaster response agencies assess the spread and impact of the slick.


"Okay guys, let’s go!"

The first hatchlings from endangered sea turtle eggs at possible risk by the BP oil spill were released into the Atlantic Ocean off the Kennedy Space Center on July 11.

"There they go. Yeah! That’s awesome."

After their collection at a Florida Panhandle beach, the eggs of twenty-two Kemp’s ridley turtles were brought to a secure, climate-controlled facility at Kennedy where the nest was monitored until incubation was complete.


When she was just six years old, Carolina Gallardo fell in love with the night sky. As a teenager, the young woman from a poor family near Mexico City watched a television show about astronomy and the Hubble Space Telescope that would make the stars her life’s work. Carolina, then thirteen, was so inspired by Ed Weiler, the NASA scientist featured on the program that she initiated a correspondence with him that would encourage her studies for years to come.

Now, at age 30, Carolina Gallardo has finished a summer internship at the Goddard Space Flight Center to complete masters’ programs in aeronautics/astronautics and space technology. A special guest at the Science Mission Directorate’s monthly meeting at Headquarters, Caroline told senior managers how Weiler, now the directorate’s Associate Administrator and others at NASA have impacted her life.

Caroline Gallardo: "Now I graduate with two Masters in aerospace and I can say that thanks to you, thanks to your challenge, to your motivation, I can tell everyone that if it wasn’t for you, I wouldn’t have gone this far. Thank you very much."


NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and the NASA team that traveled to Chile to assist the once-trapped miners met with President Obama on Oct. 28 in the White House Oval Office. The team advised Chilean rescue officials on how to maintain the psychological and physiological well-being of the 33 miners trapped a half-mile beneath the Earth’s surface, as well as the design of the rescue capsule in which each man would finally ascend after 69 days underground.

For nearly eighty years, the LEGO "brick" has helped enhance children’s creativity through playing and learning. Now, NASA is teaming up with LEGO to develop innovative educational and outreach activities to interest youngsters in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The collaboration, called “Build the Future, kicked off at Kennedy with youngsters building their vision of the future in space.


The continuing study of ice sheets in the Arctic was just one way NASA researchers added to the data about changes in temperatures and sea levels around the globe.

A new NASA Web site can help our future explorers and leaders better understand the how’s and why’s of climate change – and what they can do to make our planet more habitable.

Fish: "Kind of far south for a polar bear ain’t you?"

Polar Bear: "You don’t say. Look, my habitat is shrinking and I obviously fell asleep on the wrong iceberg."

Fish: "What you say?"

Climate Kids can be found at

Operation IceBridge has entered the second phase of its spring 2010 campaign. NASA’s DC-8 aircraft has returned from Greenland to the Dryden Flight Research Center in California, following a successful survey of the entire Arctic Ocean. The plane flew from Thule, Greenland to Fairbanks, Alaska providing a detailed snapshot of sea ice conditions.

As this year’s hurricane season gets underway, the Goddard Space Flight Center has unveiled, for the media, NASA’s new climate simulation center. An amalgam of supercomputing, visualization, and data interaction technologies, the climate simulation center, supports weather and climate prediction research at one of the world’s largest contingents of Earth scientists.

A NASA-sponsored mission in Alaska is exploring how changes in the Arctic’s sea ice cover may be contributing to global warming. ICESCAPE, for Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is working its way through the Bering Strait headed for the Chukchi and Beaufort seas.


From laboratory and wind tunnel research to demonstration tests, NASA Aeronautics continued its green aviation initiatives. Their goal: to make air travel quieter, cleaner and more efficient while increasing the safety and comfort of passengers.

The Ames Research Center was the scene of a gathering of experts from government, industry and academia meeting to discuss the agency’s green aviation research efforts

Researcher: "…doing research in alternative bio-fuels."

and showcase groundbreaking solutions NASA and its partners are developing to reduce the impact of aviation systems on the environment.

Over a two day period, attendees heard researchers, scientists, technicians and leading policymakers, present on the latest emerging environmentally sensitive aviation technologies.

Jaiwon Shin: "Please join us in welcoming our NASA Administrator, Mr. Bolden."

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden addressed the group on day one of the event.

Charles Bolden: "We’re so excited at NASA about the opportunities we’re being given, in the coming years, to help develop solutions to some of our most pressing aviation problems, and create the next generation of air transportation systems that will last generations and make us all safer and make the planet a better place That’s a huge challenge, but we at NASA enthusiastically accept it."

Next week, more of This Year @NASA!

محمدرضا صادقیان

12-19-2010, 07:07 PM

BAY ST. LOUIS, Miss. -- NASA conducted a test fire Friday of the liquid-fuel AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space launch vehicle. The test at the agency's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi supports NASA's Commercial Transportation Services partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station.

Orbital's Taurus II uses a pair AJ26 rocket engines built by Aerojet to provide first stage propulsion. Friday's test on the Stennis' E-1 test stand involved a team of Orbital, Aerojet, and Stennis engineers, with Stennis employees serving as test conductors.

"Once again, the Orbital and Aerojet team have achieved a major milestone with the AJ26 engine," said Doug Cooke, associate administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "This success moves Orbital closer to its goal of providing NASA with commercial space transportation services to the space station."

The 55-second firing was the second in a series of verification tests being conducted at the south Mississippi facility. A third hot-fire test also is planned to verify tuning of engine control valves.

"This second test of the AJ26 engine not only moves Orbital's commercial space transport plans a step ahead, but also demonstrates again the quality and versatility of Stennis facilities and the expertise of our test and support team," Stennis Director Patrick Scheuermann said.

The AJ26 engine is designed to power the Taurus II space vehicle on flights to low Earth orbit. NASA's partnership with Orbital was formed under the agency's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services joint research and development project. The company is under contract with NASA to provide eight cargo missions to the space station through 2015.

For more information about NASA exploration, visit:

Odyssey's longevity enables continued science, including the monitoring of seasonal changes on Mars from year to year and the most detailed maps ever made of most of the planet. %20on%20Mars.aspx
By NASA/JPL — Published: December 20, 2010
NASA's Mars Odyssey, which launched in 2001, broke the record December 15 for longest-serving spacecraft at the Red Planet. Provided by NASA-JPL
NASA's Mars Odyssey, which launched in 2001, broke the record December 15 for longest-serving spacecraft at the Red Planet. The probe began its 3,340th day in martian orbit at 8:55 p.m. EST on the 15th to break the record set by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, which orbited Mars from 1997 to 2006.

Odyssey's longevity enables continued science, including the monitoring of seasonal changes on Mars from year to year and the most detailed maps ever made of most of the planet. In 2002, the spacecraft detected hydrogen just below the surface throughout Mars' high-latitude regions. The deduction that the hydrogen is in frozen water prompted NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander mission, which confirmed the theory in 2008. Odyssey also carried the first experiment sent to Mars specifically to prepare for human missions, and found that radiation levels around the planet from solar flares and cosmic rays are 2 to 3 times higher than around Earth.

Odyssey also has served as a communication relay, handling most of the data sent home by Phoenix and NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity. Odyssey became the middle link for continuous observation of martian weather by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

Odyssey will support the 2012 landing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and surface operations of that mission. MSL will assess whether its landing area has had environmental conditions favorable for microbial life and preserving evidence about whether life has existed there. The rover will carry the largest, most advanced set of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the martian surface.

"The Mars program clearly demonstrates that world-class science coupled with sound and creative engineering equals success and longevity," said Doug McCuistion from NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Other recent NASA spacecraft at Mars include the Mars Global Surveyor that began orbiting the Red Planet in 1997. The Spirit and Opportunity rovers landed on Mars January 2004. They have been exploring for 6 years, far surpassing their original 90-day mission. Phoenix landed May 25, 2008, farther north than any previous spacecraft to the planet's surface. The mission's biggest surprise was the discovery of perchlorate, an oxidizing chemical on Earth that is food for some microbes, but potentially toxic for others. The solar-powered lander completed its 3-month mission and kept working until sunlight waned 2 months later. MRO arrived at Mars in 2006 on a search for evidence that water persisted on the planet's surface for a long period of time.

The magnetic field strength in the core is 50 times stronger than that at Earth’s surface.
By University of California, Berkeley — Published: December 20, 2010
A cross-section of Earth's interior shows the outer crust, the hot gooey mantle, the liquid outer core, and the solid, frozen inner core (gray). Graphic: Calvin J. Hamilton
A University of California, Berkeley, geophysicist has made the first-ever measurement of the strength of the magnetic field inside Earth's core, 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) underground.

The magnetic field strength is 25 Gauss, or 50 times stronger than the magnetic field at the surface that makes compass needles align north-south. Although geophysicists predict this number is in the middle of the range, it puts constraints on the identity of the heat sources in the core that keep the internal dynamo running to maintain this magnetic field.

"This is the first really good number we've had based on observations, not inference," said Bruce A. Buffett from University of California, Berkeley. "The result is not controversial, but it does rule out a very weak magnetic field and argues against a very strong field."

A strong magnetic field inside the outer core means there is a lot of convection and a lot of heat being produced, which scientists would need to account for, Buffett said. The presumed sources of energy are the residual heat from 4 billion years ago when the planet was hot and molten, the release of gravitational energy as heavy elements sink to the bottom of the liquid core, and the radioactive decay of long-lived elements such as potassium, uranium, and thorium.

A weak field — 5 Gauss, for example — would imply that little heat is being supplied by radioactive decay, while a strong field, on the order of 100 Gauss, would imply a large contribution from radioactive decay.

"A measurement of the magnetic field tells us what the energy requirements are and what the sources of heat are," Buffett said.

About 60 percent of the power generated inside Earth likely comes from the exclusion of light elements from the solid inner core as it freezes and grows, he said. This constantly builds up crud in the outer core.

The Earth's magnetic field is produced in the outer two-thirds of the planet's iron/nickel core. This outer core, about 1,400 miles (2,300 km) thick, is liquid, while the inner core is a frozen iron and nickel wrecking ball with a radius of about 800 miles (1,300 km) — roughly the size of the Moon. A hot, gooey mantle and a rigid surface crust surround the core.

The cooling Earth originally captured its magnetic field from the planetary disk in which the solar system formed. That field would have disappeared within 10,000 years if not for the planet's internal dynamo, which regenerates the field thanks to heat produced inside the planet. The heat makes the liquid outer core boil, or "convect," and as the conducting metals rise and then sink through the existing magnetic field, they create electrical currents that maintain the magnetic field. This roiling dynamo produces a slowly shifting magnetic field at the surface.

"You get changes in the surface magnetic field that look a lot like gyres and flows in the oceans and the atmosphere, but these are being driven by fluid flow in the outer core," Buffett said.

Buffett is a theoretician who uses observations to improve computer models of Earth's internal dynamo. Now at work on a second-generation model, he admits that a lack of information about conditions in the Earth's interior has been a big hindrance to making accurate models.

He realized, however, that the tug of the Moon on the tilt of Earth's spin axis could provide information about the magnetic field inside. This tug would make the inner core precess — that is, make the spin axis slowly rotate in the opposite direction — which would produce magnetic changes in the outer core that damp the precession. Radio observations of distant quasars — extremely bright, active galaxies — provide precise measurements of the changes in Earth's rotation axis needed to calculate this damping.

"The Moon is continually forcing the rotation axis of the core to precess, and we're looking at the response of the fluid outer core to the precession of the inner core," he said.

By calculating the effect of the Moon on the spinning inner core, Buffett discovered that the precession makes the slightly out-of-round inner core generate shear waves in the liquid outer core. These waves of molten iron and nickel move within a tight cone only 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 meters) thick, interacting with the magnetic field to produce an electric current that heats the liquid. This serves to damp the precession of the rotation axis. The damping causes the precession to lag behind the Moon as it orbits Earth. A measurement of the lag allowed Buffett to calculate the magnitude of the damping, and the magnetic field inside the outer core.

Buffett noted that the calculated field — 25 Gauss — is an average over the entire outer core. The field is expected to vary with position.

"I still find it remarkable that we can look to distant quasars to get insights into the deep interior of our planet," Buffett said.

Related Articles

solitary star

12-21-2010, 03:28 PM

i love so much "quantum loops" and that is about it!
Physicists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw have put forward -- on the pages of Physical Review D -- a new theoretical model of quantum gravity describing the emergence of space-time from the structures of quantum theory. It is not only one of the few models describing the full general theory of relativity advanced by Einstein, but it is also completely mathematically consistent. "The solutions applied allow to trace the evolution of the Universe in a more physically acceptable manner than in the case of previous cosmological models," explains Prof. Jerzy Lewandowski from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (FUW).
While the general theory of relativity is applied to describe the Universe on a cosmological scale, quantum mechanics is applied to describe reality on an atomic scale. Both theories were developed in the early 20th century. Their validity has since been confirmed by highly sophisticated experiments and observations. The problem lies in the fact that the theories are mutually exclusive.
According to the general theory of relativity, reality is always uniquely determined (as in classical mechanics). However, time and space play an active role in the events and are themselves subject to Einstein's equations. According to quantum physics, on the other hand, one may only gain a rough understanding of nature. A prediction can only be made with a probability; its precision being limited by inherent properties. But the laws of the prevailing quantum theories do not apply to time and space. Such contradictions are irrelevant under standard conditions -- galaxies are not subject to quantum phenomena and quantum gravity plays a minor role in the world of atoms and particles. Nonetheless, gravity and quantum effects need to merge under conditions close to the Big Bang.
Traditional cosmological models describe the evolution of the Universe within the framework of the general theory of relativity itself. The equations at the core of the theory suggest that the Universe is a dynamic, constantly expanding creation. When theorists attempt to discover what the Universe was like in times gone by, they reach the stage where density and temperature in the model become infinite -- in other words, they lose their physical sense. Thus, the infinities may only be indicative of the weaknesses of the former theory and the moment of the Big Bang does not have to signify the birth of the Universe.
In order to gain at least some knowledge of quantum gravity, scientists construct simplified quantum models, known as quantum cosmological models, in which space-time and matter are expressed in a single value or a few values alone. For example, the model developed by Ashtekar, Bojowald, Lewandowski, Pawłowski and Singh predicts that quantum gravity prevents the increase of matter energy density from exceeding a certain critical value (of the order of the Planck density). Consequently, there must have been a contracting universe prior to the Big Bang. When matter density had reached the critical value, there followed a rapid expansion -- the Big Bang, known as the Big Bounce. However, the model is a highly simplified toy model.
The real answer to the mystery of the Big Bang lies in a unified quantum theory of matter and gravity. One attempt at developing such a theory is loop quantum gravity (LQG). The theory holds that space is weaved from one-dimensional threads. "It is just like in the case of a fabric -- although it is seemingly smooth from a distance, it becomes evident at close quarters that it consists of a network of fibres," describes Wojciech Kamiński, MSc from FUW. Such space would constitute a fine fabric -- an area of a square centimetre would consists of 1066 threads.
Physicists Marcin Domagała, Wojciech Kamiński and Jerzy Lewandowski, together with Kristina Giesel from the Louisiana State University (guest), developed their model within the framework of loop quantum gravity. The starting points for the model are two fields, one of which is a gravitational field. "Thanks to the general theory of relativity we know that gravity is the very geometry of space-time. We may, therefore, say that our point of departure is three-dimensional space," explains Marcin Domagała, PhD (FUW).
The second starting point is a scalar field -- a mathematical object in which a particular value is attributed to every point in space. In the proposed model, scalar fields are interpreted as the simplest form of matter. Scalar fields have been known in physics for years, they are applied, among others, to describe temperature and pressure distribution in space. "We have opted for a scalar field as it is the typical feature of contemporary cosmological models and our aim is to develop a model that would constitute another step forward in quantum gravity research," observes Prof. Lewandowski.
In the model developed by physicists from Warsaw, time emerges as the relation between the gravitational field (space) and the scalar field -- a moment in time is given by the value of the scalar field. "We pose the question about the shape of space at a given value of the scalar field and Einstein's quantum equations provide the answer," explains Prof. Lewandowski. Thus, the phenomenon of the passage of time emerges as the property of the state of the gravitational and scalar fields and the appearance of such a state corresponds to the birth of the well-known space-time. "It is worthy of note that time is nonexistent at the beginning of the model. Nothing happens. Action and dynamics appear as the interrelation between the fields when we begin to pose questions about how one object relates to another," explains Prof. Lewandowski.
Physicist from FUW have made it possible to provide a more accurate description of the evolution of the Universe. Whereas models based on the general theory of relativity are simplified and assume the gravitational field at every point of the Universe to be identical or subject to minor changes, the gravitational field in the proposed model may differ at different points in space.
The proposed theoretical construction is the first such highly advanced model characterized by internal mathematical consistency. It comes as the natural continuation of research into quantization of gravity, where each new theory is derived from classical theories. To that end, physicists apply certain algorithms, known as quantizations. "Unfortunately for physicists, the algorithms are far from precise. For example, it may follow from an algorithm that a Hilbert space needs to be constructed, but no details are provided," explains Marcin Domagała, MSc. "We have succeeded in performing a full quantization and obtained one of the possible models."
There is still a long way to go, according to Prof. Lewandowski: "We have developed a certain theoretical machinery. We may begin to ply it with questions and it will provide the answers." Theorists from FUW intend, among others, to inquire whether the Big Bounce actually occurs in their model. "In the future, we will try to include in the model further fields of the Standard Model of elementary particles. We are curious ourselves to find out what will happen," says Prof.

solitary star

12-21-2010, 03:47 PM

i think lqc is the best theory that can describe what happend before big bang but it maybe false because i think linking general gravity to quantm mechanics is very hard and so imposible and it's too exciting theroy for me for that reason!if they can explain what happend after rewriting general geravity in quantumeic basis & is 100% possible with out having a paradox it will be such as a quack in physics and other science!


01-15-2011, 01:24 PM

ScienceDaily (Jan. 11, 2011) — One of the strangest space objects ever seen is being scrutinized by the penetrating vision of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A mysterious, glowing green blob of gas is floating in space near a spiral galaxy. Hubble uncovered delicate filaments of gas and a pocket of young star clusters in the giant object, which is the size of our Milky Way galaxy.
The Hubble revelations are the latest finds in an ongoing probe of Hanny's Voorwerp (Hanny's Object in Dutch), named for Hanny van Arkel, the Dutch teacher who discovered the ghostly structure in 2007 while participating in the online Galaxy Zoo project. Galaxy Zoo enlists the public to help classify more than a million galaxies catalogued in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The project has expanded to include the Hubble Zoo, in which the public is asked to assess tens of thousands of galaxies in deep imagery from the Hubble Space Telescope.

In the sharpest view yet of Hanny's Voorwerp, Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys have uncovered star birth in a region of the green object that faces the spiral galaxy IC 2497, located about 650 million light-years from Earth. Radio observations have shown an outflow of gas arising from the galaxy's core. The new Hubble images reveal that the galaxy's gas is interacting with a small region of Hanny's Voorwerp, which is collapsing and forming stars. The youngest stars are a couple of million years old.

"The star clusters are localized, confined to an area that is over a few thousand light-years wide," explains astronomer William Keel of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, leader of the Hubble study. "The region may have been churning out stars for several million years. They are so dim that they have previously been lost in the brilliant light of the surrounding gas."

Recent X-ray observations have revealed why Hanny's Voorwerp caught the eye of astronomers. The galaxy's rambunctious core produced a quasar, a powerful light beacon powered by a black hole. The quasar shot a broad beam of light in Hanny's Voorwerp's direction, illuminating the gas cloud and making it a space oddity. Its bright green color is from glowing oxygen.

"We just missed catching the quasar, because it turned off no more than 200,000 years ago, so what we're seeing is the afterglow from the quasar," Keel says. "This implies that it might flicker on and off, which is typical of quasars, but we've never seen such a dramatic change happen so rapidly."

The quasar's outburst also may have cast a shadow on the blob. This feature gives the illusion of a gaping hole about 20,000 light-years wide in Hanny's Voorwerp. Hubble reveals sharp edges around the apparent opening, suggesting that an object close to the quasar may have blocked some of the light and projected a shadow on Hanny's Voorwerp. This phenomenon is similar to a fly on a movie projector lens casting a shadow on a movie screen.

Radio studies have revealed that Hanny's Voorwerp is not just an island gas cloud floating in space. The glowing blob is part of a long, twisting rope of gas, or tidal tail, about 300,000 light-years long that wraps around the galaxy. The only optically visible part of the rope is Hanny's Voorwerp. The illuminated object is so huge that it stretches from 44,000 light-years to 136,000 light-years from the galaxy's core.

The quasar, the outflow of gas that instigated the star birth, and the long, gaseous tidal tail point to a rough life for IC 2497.

"The evidence suggests that IC 2497 may have merged with another galaxy about a billion years ago," Keel explains. "The Hubble images show in exquisite detail that the spiral arms are twisted, so the galaxy hasn't completely settled down."

In Keel's scenario, the merger expelled the long streamer of gas from the galaxy and funneled gas and stars into the center, which fed the black hole. The engorged black hole then powered the quasar, which launched two cones of light. One light beam illuminated part of the tidal tail, now called Hanny's Voorwerp.

About a million years ago, shock waves produced glowing gas near the galaxy's core and blasted it outward. The glowing gas is seen only in Hubble images and spectra, Keel says. The outburst may have triggered star formation in Hanny's Voorwerp. Less than 200,000 years ago, the quasar dropped in brightness by 100 times or more, leaving an ordinary-looking core.

New images of the galaxy's dusty core from Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show an expanding bubble of gas blown out of one side of the core, perhaps evidence of the sputtering quasar's final gasps. The expanding ring of gas is still too small for ground-based telescopes to detect.

"This quasar may have been active for a few million years, which perhaps indicates that quasars blink on and off on timescales of millions of years, not the 100 million years that theory had suggested," Keel says. He added that the quasar could light up again if more material is dumped around the black hole.

Keel is presenting his results on Jan. 10, 2011, at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, Wash.


01-16-2011, 01:17 PM

Hi There! I hope all of us have a snowy day full of fun & pleasure these days

Thank X_BACHHOLE for His/Her :slow:topic

I found some other sources about your topic
but i couldn't find various pictures about that
. If u find any other pics please paste it here.

The space oddity:crazy: was spied in 2007 by Dutch high-school teacher
Hanny van Arkel while participating in the online Galaxy Zoo project. The cosmic blob, called Hanny's Voorwerp (Hanny's Object in Dutch), appears to be a solitary green island floating near a normal-looking spiral galaxy, called IC 2497. Since the discovery, puzzled astronomers have used a slew of telescopes, including X-ray and radio observatories, to help unwrap the mystery. Astronomers found that Hanny's Voorwerp is the only visible part of a 300-light-year-long gaseous streamer stretching around the galaxy. The greenish Voorwerp is visible because a searchlight beam of light from the galaxy's core illuminated it. This beam came from a quasar, a bright, energetic object that is powered by a black hole. An encounter with another galaxy may have fed the black hole and pulled the gaseous streamer from IC 2497

Now, with the help of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have uncovered pocket of young star clusters (colored yellow-orange in the image) at the tip of the green-colored Hanny's Voorwerp. Hubble also shows that gas flowing from IC 2497 .(the pinkish object with the swirling spiral arms) may have instigated the star birth by compressing the gas in Hanny's Voorwerp (


01-16-2011, 07:55 PM

hi dear planetstruck
also i hope that you and your clan have a pleasurable snowy winter with funny
i'm so sorry :you're kidding, rig .
i don't have more portrayal for this news that i inscribed .
but i guesstimate that this portrayal that attached to this news is manufacture and it is n't real portrayal .

محمدرضا صادقیان

01-16-2011, 11:28 PM

See asteroid profiles from recent occultations here (

1-10-second MPG format (1.8 Meg) GPS time inserted video clip of ( occultation by 1587 Kahrstedt, 10-20-04. (

2- 16-second AVI video clip (1.6 Meg), of occultation by ( 828 Lindemania, 11-10-02 (

3- 372 Palma January 26, 2007. From Tehama, California, 13.5 second event. (
*Videos by Richard Nugent
Hi my astronomical friends.
I propose that these videos are interesting to watch. I think pretty.
Best regards / Mohammad Reza Sadeghian


01-17-2011, 10:15 AM

! Hi
............................So do u
.I strongly agree with u cause I searched but there weren’t any real pics of ur news


02-07-2011, 03:38 PM

first news
the sky event on february
Full Moon, 3:36 a.m.
The Full Moon of February ( is usually known as the Wolf Moon. In Algonquian it is called Snow Moon. Other names are Hunger Moon, Storm Moon, and Candles Moon.
In Hindi it is known as Magh Poornima. Its Sinhala (Buddhist) name is Navam Poya. The Full moon rises around sunset and sets around sunrise, the only night in the month when the moon is in the sky all night long. The rest of the month, the moon spends at least some time in the daytime sky.
Thu., February 24
Last Quarter Moon, 6:26 p.m.
The Last or Third Quarter Moon rises around 2 a.m. and sets around 11 a.m. It is most easily seen just after sunrise in the southern sky.
Observing Highlights
Fri., February 11, early evening
Moon close to the Pleiades
The First Quarter Moon passes just south of the brightest star cluster in the sky, the Pleiades ( (Messier 45) in Taurus.
Mon., February 14, 3 a.m.
Moon close to Messier 35
The waxing gibbous Moon passes close to the open cluster Messier 35 in Gemini.
Sun., February 20–Sat., March 5
Zodiacal Light
Visible in the west after evening twilight, the faint glow of interplanetary dust particles.
Mercury is too close to the Sun all month to be observed. Superior conjunction is on February 25.
Venus is a brilliant “morning star” all month.
Mars is too close to the Sun to be observed. It is in conjunction with the Sun on February 4.
Jupiter is in the western sky in the early evening, setting around 9 p.m. It spends most of the month in Pisces, but begins a brief visit to the constellation Cetus on February 24. Yes, Cetus!
Saturn rises around 10 p.m. and is visible the rest of the night in Virgo. Its rings have returned to their usual glory after being on edge for the last two years.
Uranus is in Pisces all month. It sets around 8:30 p.m.
Neptune is too close to the Sun to be observed. It is in conjunction with the Sun on February 17.
Notice that no less that three planets are in conjunction with the Sun this month.


02-09-2011, 09:35 AM

Hi there
.As I connected 2 the internet today in the morning, I found a news in yahoo which makes me:slow::crazy: shocked
.Now I wanna put it here 2 inform u
The latest news about a disputed report of a 900-foot asteroid's threat to Earth prompts a search for answers

February 09, 2011

Who says the world is only full of bad news? NASA has largely dismissed a Russian report that an asteroid larger than two football fields could hit Earth by 2036. In other words, you can relax.Known as "99942 Apophis," the 900-foot-long asteroid has had the attention of scientists for some time. According to an article from, back in 2004, NASA scientists announced that Apophis could hit the planet in 2029. But, after further number crunching, that prediction was later retracted

The asteroid hurtled back into the news when Russia recently predicted 99942 Apophis may hit Earth on April 13, 2036. NASA acknowledges that there is a chance this may happen, but it is far from likely. Donald Yeomans, who heads up NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office, estimates the odds at around 1 in 250,000. And, don't worry — NASA does have a backup plan. Should the need arise, the space agency will construct machinery to change the asteroid's orbit

The Russian scientists are also hedging their bets. Professor Leonid Sokolov of St. Petersburg State University remarked that 99942 Apophis would most likely disintegrate before hitting Earth

Still, a chance is a chance, and Web searchers immediately sought more information on the errant asteroid. Online lookups for "99942 Apophis" jumped sharply while "pictures of asteroids" and "apophis nasa report" also posted strong spikes in the Search box

And while the odds of 99942 Apophis "hitting home" are blissfully slim, there are some in the scientific community who believe its high time for "Earth protection strategies" just in case. lists several theories as to how best tackle any objects that might be on a collision course with EarthOdds are we'll never need them. But it's better to be safe than to end up in a situation that resembles a Michael Bay movie.


02-25-2011, 10:06 PM

Buried in the flood of data from the Kepler telescope is a planetary system unlike any seen before. Two of its apparent planets share the same orbit around their star. If the discovery is confirmed, it would bolster a theory that Earth once shared its orbit with a Mars-sized body that later crashed into it, resulting in the moon's formation

more here (


02-26-2011, 04:04 PM

Awe-struck astronaut captures Endeavour in dramatic silhouette against Earth's horizon

16th February 2010

More than 200miles above Earth, the space shuttle Endeavour can be seen silhouetted against our planet's colourful horizon
The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 22 crew on board the International Space Station as the shuttle approached for docking last Tuesday
The tricky manoeuvre was performed while both the shuttle and station were travelling at more than 17,000mph (

Shadow of the Earth: The silhouette of the space shuttle Endeavour above our planet (

The International Space Station backdropped by Earth's horizon and the blackness of space


02-26-2011, 04:22 PM

Endeavour astronaut Stephen Robinson was awe-struck as the shuttle approached the station
'To look up and see what humankind could really accomplish in space was just almost impossible to believe. It seemed like science fiction"he said
'Now here we are with human beings that are living on board. That truly is the amazing legacy of the space shuttle programme
The shuttle has delivered vital food supplies and air cleaning equipment to the station as well as a new observation deck (
Nasa astronaut T.J. Creamer & Jeffrey Williams with fresh produce brought by the shuttle (
The International Space Station is seen leaving Earth in this photo taken from the Intracoastal Waterway Bridge, in Ponte Vedra, Florida


02-26-2011, 10:13 PM

Be come a part of history

look here (


04-21-2011, 11:27 AM

Geyser moon puts its mark on Saturn

18:00 20 April 2011 by David Shiga (
For similar stories, visit the Solar System ( and Saturn and its moons ( Topic Guides

An electrical current is flowing from Saturn's moon Enceladus to the ringed planet, creating a glowing patch in the planet's atmosphere.

Ultraviolet images taken by the Cassini spacecraft revealed the patch, which is distinct from the planet's auroras. It lies near Saturn's north pole – exactly where electrons emitted by Enceladus would hit after being chanelled along the planet's magnetic field lines, report Wayne Pryor ( of Central Arizona College in Coolidge and colleagues.
Where do the electrons come from? The team believes that sunlight knocks them off water molecules spewed by geysers ( at Enceladus's south pole.
The brightness of the patch varies, which could be due to variations in the amount of water vapour released by Enceladus, says the team.

Journal reference: Nature (, DOI: 10.1038/nature09928


06-28-2011, 01:43 PM

NASA Twitter Followers Will Fly Shuttle Simulator During Tweetup At Johnson Space Center

HOUSTON -- So you think you can pilot the space shuttle? NASA will give 30 of its Twitter followers a chance to test their skills at space shuttle ascent, rendezvous or landing aboard the same simulator astronauts use to train for their missions.

NASA's Johnson Space Center is hosting a daylong Tweetup on July 19, during space shuttle Atlantis' STS-135 mission to the International Space Station. Participants will get a behind-the-scenes tour at Johnson and a hands-on opportunity aboard the shuttle simulator to take control in a training scenario. The tour includes a look at the Mission Control Center and astronauts' training facilities. Visitors also will have the opportunity to speak with flight directors, trainers, astronauts and managers.

Atlantis is targeted to launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 10:26 a.m. CDT on July 8. If it launches as planned, the Tweetup will take place one day before the last orbiter of the shuttle fleet makes its final landing.

Tweetup registration opens at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, June 28, and closes 24 hours later at 11 a.m. on Wednesday, June 29. NASA will select 30 individuals randomly from the online registrants.

Reporters are invited to cover the Tweetup from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Media representatives planning to attend should contact Tammie Letroise-Brown at 281-483-4942.


06-28-2011, 01:48 PM

What's to Blame for Wild Weather? "La Nada"

Such sheets of fire, such bursts of horrid thunder,
Such groans of roaring wind and rain, I never
Remember to have heard; man's nature cannot carry
The affliction nor the fear … from Shakespeare's Tragedy of King Lear

June 21, 2011: Record snowfall, killer tornadoes, devastating floods: There’s no doubt about it. Since Dec. 2010, the weather in the USA has been positively wild. But why?
Some recent news reports have attributed the phenomenon to an extreme "La Niña," a band of cold water stretching across the Pacific Ocean with global repercussions for climate and weather. But NASA climatologist Bill Patzert names a different suspect: "La Nada."
"La Niña was strong in December," he says. "But back in January it pulled a disappearing act and left us with nothing – La Nada – to constrain the jet stream. Like an unruly teenager, the jet stream took advantage of the newfound freedom--and the results were disastrous."
La Niña and El Niño are opposite extremes of a great Pacific oscillation. Every 2 to 7 years, surface waters across the equatorial Pacific warm up (El Niño) and then they cool down again (La Niña). Each condition has its own distinct effects on weather. (
The blue and purple band in this satellite image of the Pacific Ocean traces the cool waters of the La Niña phenomenon in December 2010. (from Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)/Jason-2 satellite, Credit: NASA JPL)

The winter of 2010 began with La Niña conditions taking hold. A "normal" La Niña would have pushed the jet stream northward, pushing cold arctic air (one of the ingredients of severe weather) away from the lower US. But this La Niña petered out quickly, and no El Niño rose up to replace it. The jet stream was free to misbehave.

"By mid-January 2011, La Niña weakened rapidly and by mid-February it was 'adios La Niña,' allowing the jet stream to meander wildly around the US. Consequently the weather pattern became dominated by strong outbreaks of frigid polar air, producing blizzards across the West, Upper Midwest, and northeast US."1
The situation lingered into spring -- and things got ugly. Russell Schneider, Director of the NOAA-NWS Storm Prediction Center, explains:
"First, very strong winds out of the south carrying warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico met cold jet stream winds racing in from the west. Stacking these two air masses on top of each other created the degree of instability that fuels intense thunderstorms."
Extreme contrasts in wind speeds and directions of the upper and lower atmosphere transformed ordinary thunderstorms into long-lived rotating supercells capable of producing violent tornadoes.2
In Patzert's words, "The jet stream -- on steroids -- acted as an atmospheric mix master, causing tornadoes to explode across Dixie and Tornado Alleys, and even into Massachusetts." (
This satellite image, taken in April 2011, reveals La Niña's rapid exit from the equator near the US coast. The cool (false-color blue) water was gone by early spring. (from Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)/Jason-2 satellite, Credit: NASA JPL)

All this because of a flaky La Niña?
"La Niña and El Niño affect the atmosphere's energy balance because they determine the location of warm water in the Pacific, and that in turn determines where huge clusters of tropical thunderstorms form," explains Schneider. "These storms are the main energy source from the tropics influencing the large scale pattern of the jet stream that flows through the US."
In agreement with Patzert, he notes that the very strong and active jet stream across the lower US in April "may have been related to the weakening La Niña conditions observed over the tropical Pacific."
And of course there's this million dollar question: "Does any research point to climate change as a cause of this wild weather?"
"Global warming is certainly happening," asserts Patzert, "but we can't discount global warming or blame it for the 2011 tornado season. We just don't know ... Yet."3
What will happen next? And please don't say, "La Nada."

Author: Dauna Coulter ( Wild%20Weather) | Editor: Dr. Tony Phillips ( 0on%20Wild%20Weather) | Credit: Science@NASA
End Notes(1) Other atmospheric factors also contributed to the inflow of frigid polar air, says Patzert. One of the most significant was a weakening in the whirlpool motion of the air around the North Pole. As a result of this weakening, more cold air flowed away from the pole and down toward the states. Climatologists call this an "arctic oscillation."
(2) Imagine a paddle wheel oriented like a Ferris wheel and placed in winds that that are much stronger at the top than at the bottom. The wheel will spin in the direction of the strong winds above. This spring, these strong, turning winds led to ongoing rotation of the supercells themselves. So we ended up with intense rotation and updraft close to Earth's surface -- conditions ripe for strong tornadoes.
(3) On May 26, 2011, Patzert posted a comment about this topic on Andrew Revkin’s The New York Times' DOT EARTH Blog, "Demography, Design, Atom Bombs and Tornado Deaths."


06-28-2011, 01:56 PM

Free-Floating Planets May Be More Common Than Stars

May 18, 2011: Astronomers have discovered a new class of Jupiter-sized planets floating alone in the dark of space, away from the light of a star. The team believes these lone worlds are probably outcasts from developing planetary systems and, moreover, they could be twice as numerous as the stars themselves.
"Although free-floating planets have been predicted, they finally have been detected," said Mario Perez, exoplanet program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "[This has] major implications for models of planetary formation and evolution."
The discovery is based on a joint Japan-New Zealand survey that scanned the center of the Milky Way galaxy during 2006 and 2007, revealing evidence for up to 10 free-floating planets roughly the mass of Jupiter. The isolated orbs, also known as orphan planets, are difficult to spot, and had gone undetected until now. The planets are located at an average approximate distance of 10,000 to 20,000 light years from Earth. (
This artist's concept illustrates a Jupiter-like planet alone in the dark of space, floating freely without a parent star. [larger image (] [video (]

This could be just the tip of the iceberg. The team estimates there are about twice as many free-floating Jupiter-mass planets as stars. In addition, these worlds are thought to be at least as common as planets that orbit stars. This adds up to hundreds of billions of lone planets in our Milky Way galaxy alone.
"Our survey is like a population census," said David Bennett, a NASA and National Science Foundation-funded co-author of the study from the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Ind. "We sampled a portion of the galaxy, and based on these data, can estimate overall numbers in the galaxy."
The study, led by Takahiro Sumi from Osaka University in Japan, appears in the May 19 issue of the journal Nature. The survey is not sensitive to planets smaller than Jupiter and Saturn, but theories suggest lower-mass planets like Earth should be ejected from their stars more often. As a result, they are thought to be more common than free-floating Jupiters.
Previous observations spotted a handful of free-floating planet-like objects within star-forming clusters, with masses three times that of Jupiter. But scientists suspect the gaseous bodies form more like stars than planets. These small, dim orbs, called brown dwarfs, grow from collapsing balls of gas and dust, but lack the mass to ignite their nuclear fuel and shine with starlight. It is thought the smallest brown dwarfs are approximately the size of large planets. (
A video from JPL ( describes the microlensing technique astronomers used to detect the orphan planets.

On the other hand, it is likely that some planets are ejected from their early, turbulent solar systems, due to close gravitational encounters with other planets or stars. Without a star to circle, these planets would move through the galaxy as our sun and others stars do, in stable orbits around the galaxy's center. The discovery of 10 free-floating Jupiters supports the ejection scenario, though it's possible both mechanisms are at play.
"If free-floating planets formed like stars, then we would have expected to see only one or two of them in our survey instead of 10," Bennett said. "Our results suggest that planetary systems often become unstable, with planets being kicked out from their places of birth."
The observations cannot rule out the possibility that some of these planets may be in orbit around distant stars, but other research indicates Jupiter-mass planets in such distant orbits are rare.
The survey, the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA), is named in part after a giant wingless, extinct bird family from New Zealand called the moa. A 5.9-foot (1.8-meter) telescope at Mount John University Observatory in New Zealand is used to regularly scan the copious stars at the center of our galaxy for gravitational microlensing events. These occur when something, such as a star or planet, passes in front of another more distant star. The passing body's gravity warps the light of the background star, causing it to magnify and brighten. Heftier passing bodies, like massive stars, will warp the light of the background star to a greater extent,resulting in brightening events that can last weeks. Small planet-size bodies will cause less of a distortion, and brighten a star for only a few days or less.
A second microlensing survey group, the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE), contributed to this discovery using a 4.2-foot (1.3 meter) telescope in Chile. The OGLE group also observed many of the same events, and their observations independently confirmed the analysis of the MOA group.



06-28-2011, 02:44 PM

NASA Twitter Followers Will Fly Shuttle Simulator During Tweetup At Johnson Space Center
.................................................. ..................... and so on

Hi dear Golnaz!
thank u 4 ur News.
please put the refrences of that news
I couldn't find it my self in due to put it here


06-28-2011, 04:58 PM

WASHINGTON -- NASA will host a two-day launch Tweetup for 150 of its Twitter followers on Aug. 4 - 5 at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Tweetup is expected to culminate in the launc
h of the Jupiter-bound Juno spacecraft aboard an Atlas V rocket.

The launch window opens at 11:39 a.m. EDT on Aug. 5. The spacecraft is expected to arrive at Jupiter in 2016. The mission will investigate the gas giant's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. Juno's color camera will provide close-up images of Jupiter, including the first detailed glimpse of the planet's poles.

The Tweetup will provide @NASA Twitter followers with the opportunity to tour the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex; speak with scientists and engineers from the Juno and other upcoming missions; and, if all goes as scheduled, view the spacecraft launch. The event also will provide participants the opportunity to meet fellow tweeps and members of NASA's social media team.

Juno is the second of four space missions launching this year, making 2011 one of the busiest ever in planetary exploration. Aquarius was launched June 10 to study ocean salinity; Grail will launch Sept. 8 to study the moon's gravity field; and the Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity rover heads to the Red Planet no earlier than Nov. 25.


06-28-2011, 05:13 PM

Chris Ferguson: "Thanks for coming out and greeting the crew for what is the final opportunity to do this, at least in front of a space shuttle and I couldn’t think of a better backdrop."

The final space shuttle crew spoke with reporters at the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A as they completed the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test for STS-135. The TCDT gives the crew and support personnel time to familiarize themselves with equipment and procedures surrounding an upcoming launch.

The four veteran astronauts are targeted to lift off aboard Atlantis for the International Space Station on July 8 on what will be the final mission of the space shuttle era.

Rex Walheim: "The space shuttle program has been amazing what it’s done, all the great accomplishments, and you just don’t want to let that momentum down, and so there is a lot of pressure to do your job right."

The International Space Station welcomed the Progress 43 unpiloted cargo ship carrying close to three tons of food, fuel and supplies for the six Expedition 28 crewmembers on board.

That came several days after the unpiloted European Space Agency’s “Johannes Kepler” Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 undocked from the station. ATV-2 had delivered several tons of supplies to the crew in February. A day after its undocking, ATV-2 burned up on reentry over the Pacific Ocean.

NASA experts spoke at the annual Space Weather Enterprise Forum held at the National Press Club in Washington. Space weather refers to conditions and events on the sun and near-Earth that can threaten human safety, and hamper national security by impacting critical systems like electric power grids, communications, and satellite positioning and navigation systems.

John Allen: "Selection of older crew members is a benefit, rather than younger, in terms of how much radiation they can exposed to because of the finite period at which time radiation might express itself."

Dr. John Allen addressed the increased exposure to radiation faced by astronauts during adverse space weather conditions – and what can be done to prepare them for such events.

The Space Weather Enterprise brings together researchers, policymakers, forecasters, and others to share information and raise awareness of space weather and its effects on society. Space weather is predicted to increase as the sun reaches its forecasted peak of activity in 2013.


Moderator: "When you’re training to be astronauts no one had ever had that job description before, so what did astronaut training entail?"

Scott Carpenter: "Everything; every test you could imagine."

Fifty years after the first human spaceflights, NASA’s two surviving Mercury 7 astronauts – John Glenn and Scott Carpenter sat down to talk about their experiences at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington.

John Glenn: "NASA's predecessor, the national advisory committee for aeronautics, was doing some studies on a computer they had down at Langley that were about orbital flight, and wanted someone to come down there and go through some of that and I volunteered for that and that's when we first when I realized that we really were going into this; I realized anyway."

Scott Carpenter: "The order said: report to Washington at such and such time; do not discuss or speculate with anyone. So, I obeyed, though I did discuss and speculate with my wife, however. I went to a briefing at the Pentagon and that’s how I heard about the NASA project."

On February 20, 1962, John Glenn piloted his Friendship 7 spacecraft on the United States’ first orbital Mercury mission. At age 77, Glenn flew in space a second time in 1998 aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-95 after representing his native Ohio in the U.S. Senate. Scott Carpenter flew into space on May 24, 1962, aboard Aurora 7, a three-orbit science mission. The fourth American in space, Carpenter also performed important habitability research on the ocean floor.

The Ames Research Center hosted a tribute to Baruch 'Barry' Blumberg, the former NASA scientist who identified, and developed the vaccine for, the Hepatitis B virus.

Blumberg died after suffering a heart attack earlier this year at the International Lunar Research Park Exploratory Workshop at Ames, where he was a featured speaker.

And now, Centerpieces…

A good idea rarely goes out of style – just ask some of the firms developing next generation spacecraft.

Sierra Nevada, one of four winners of second-round funding from NASA’s Commercial Crew Development program, based its Dream Chaser design on the HL-20 space taxi concept.

That idea was developed by NASA's Langley Research Center in the 80s and 90s.

Company and NASA headquarters officials came to the center in Hampton, Va. to recognize those studies and Langley's 50-year history of lifting body research.

Lori Garver: "We're proud of the work we at NASA did on the HL-20 on the lifting body concept and we’re pleased that it's being utilized today."

Mark Sirangelo: "We would not be here. I would not be at this podium if it wasn't for the great work you did."

Langley engineers devised an entire plan for the HL-20.

They created pilot landing scenarios for flight simulators – some of which are now adapted for newer facilities.

They tested designs in wind tunnels and even built a full-scale model, with the help of universities, to study crew challenges; that model is at Sierra Nevada.

Many of the researchers who gave birth to the HL-20 attended the recognition ceremony.

Bill Piland: "We really appreciate this opportunity to get together again and the recognition you provided us for a job we were excited about. We still are excited about and quite frankly I thought this day would never come."

Also while in Hampton, NASA's Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and Chief Technologist Bobby Braun got the chance to see a manufacturing technique, developed at Langley that could revolutionize the way aerospace parts are made.

With a blast of confetti, Center Director Lesa Roe and several elected officials cut the ribbon to celebrate the opening of the new “green” headquarters facility at the Langley Research Center.

The first new building constructed at Langley in thirty-five years, it covers seventy-nine thousand square feet, and houses more than two hundred and fifty employees from six different center organizations.

Lesa Roe: "Today's ceremony and the building behind me, dramatically signify a new Langley and the completion of the first element in our revitalization plan."

The new structure uses some of the newest technology to reduce its impact on the environment. Its roof deflects heat and reduces storm-water runoff, and geothermal wells assist in heating and cooling, all to achieve the highest rating by the U.S. Green Building Council

Congressman Rob Wittman: "These buildings will stand as an icon in this community for that science, for that technology, for that development, for what NASA does each and every day and for what it stands for going into the future."

The second element in Langley's revitalization plan -- an integrated services building that will house a new cafeteria, conference center and additional office spaces -- will break ground later this year.

The Wallops Flight Facility became Rocket University for seven days in June as more than 120 high school educators and university students and instructors spent a week learning about rocketry and conducting science experiments in space.

SARAH HARDIN: "We've learned a great deal, there's a lot more to rockets than I ever dreamed of. We’ve gotten to actually build rockets, hands on, make our own, we've got to shoot 'em off."

SEAN MCCULLOUGH: "A lot of nice people to talk to and learn how they do things at other schools and what their specialties are."

Flying on this NASA Terrier-Improved Orion suborbital sounding rocket were experiments constructed by the student participants. After launch and payload recovery, the participants conducted preliminary data analysis and discussed their results.

JENNY JEAN: "You get to do this part, I’ll do the next part later. I mean it was a lot of team work that was involved for something that was so little."

CHRIS KOEHLER: "It was a great day for a launch, we had perfect weather, you could see everything clearly, great skies, great winds. Lots of people, lots of excitement, one of the best launches I’ve ever seen."


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