Terrorism in Pakistan
2. Definition of terrorism
3. What is terrorism?
4. Islams response to terrorism
5. Causes of terrorism:
1-Socio economic causes
5. No rule of law
10. Food insecurity
13. Lack of accountability
2. Political Causes
1. Political instability
2. Democratic failures
3. Clash between executive and judiciary
4. Absence of law and order
5. Influx of refugees
6 . Weaponisation
7. Drug trafficking
8. Mass massacre
9. Political gains
1. Religious intolerance
3. Role of religious madressahs.
4. Religious elites indulgence in corruption
5. Misunderstanding of religion
6. Futile desire of heaven
7. Portray negative image
8. Material gains
9. Selfish motives
1. Afghanistan War 1979
2. Iranian Revolution
3. War on Terrorism9/11
4. External influence
5. International conspiracies
6. Role played by India
Factors Instigating Terrorism
1. Anti terrorism campaign
2. Drone strikes
3. Negligence of Government
4. Persecution of innocent Muslims
5. Impacts of terrorism
2. Political Instability
3. Infrastructure damage
4. Economic turmoil
5. Civilians loss
6. Diminishing Tourism
7. Declining FDI
6. Steps Recommended By Government:
Ban on Terror Boosting Organizations
7. Triangular Relationship to Curb Terrorism:
8. Efforts to Vacate By 2014:
9. Critical Analysis
God has created this beautiful world with immense love and kindness. With Enormous affection Allah Almighty has given birth to his lovable creatures. He has given multiple colors to this world. He has formed Rivers, Oceans, Mountains, Stars and several other creations for the pleasure of mankind. He has given millions of shades to this mortal world. All are made for the gratification of human beings. Unfortunately, Human beings did not understand the motives of the creation of this world. Destruction and turmoil have become the fashion of the day. Terrorism is the gravest foam of destruction and disaster. It damages the internal as well as external infrastructure of every country. Insecurity and mental pressure have created a sense of self deprivation among masses.
At present, Pakistan has been facing the gigantic problem of terrorism. It has become the fashion of the day. It is regarded as headache for federation and a nightmare for public. It has colossal roots which spread inside the internal as well as external boundaries of Pakistan. Although it is global issue yet Pakistan has to bear the brunt of it. Pakistans involvement in war against terrorism has further fuel the fire. We are facing war like situation in Pakistan .This daunting situation is caused due to several factors. These factors included the followings which are summarized as below: Political instability, social injustice, inequality, self deprivation, religious intolerance, external hands and international conspiracies.
The term terrorism has been used millions of times around the whole globe. It is pertinent to know about the meaning of this soul trembling word. Terrorism is a use of force to create harassment. It is also used to create an environment of fear and violence. Basically there is no Specific definition of the term terrorism. International law has no definition to define or elaborate this term. Use of Authority for personal gains is also indicating towards terrorism.
A handful of people who have their vicious interests to fulfill have not only taken the lives of millions of innocent lives but also defamed the pious image of Islam. Terrorists acts like suicide bombings have become norm of the day. On account of these attacks Pakistan is suffering from huge loss ranging from civilian to economics. People have become numerical figure blowing up in every minute.
Terrorists have not left any place vacant. They spread around the whole country. Markets, shrines, mosques, hotels, gardens and educational institutes all are now under the thumb of just one click of terrorists. They blasted everything. They are responsible for the innocent lives of people. They hold special place in hell.
Islam is the pious religion around the whole orb. Purity of Islam reflects from the teachings of Holy Prophet PbUH.It always gives the message of peace , prosperity , kindness, justice, equality and love. Islam forbids all kinds of corrupt activities. Massacre of innocent lives are highly reprehensible in Islam. Committing cruel activities are forbidden in pious religion Islam. Islam openly negated terrorism.
Religion of Islam Advocates freedom, peace, mutual disagreement and admonishes aggression.
Now lets have a cursory look on the following verses of holy Quran which indicates the fact.
Do not aggress; God dislikes the aggressors.
On another place holy Quran clearly says, You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance and disregard the ignorant.
In Islam an immense emphasizes has been laid upon love and sympathy towards all creatures. God has directed to be polite in speaking. Thus Islam is the perfect religion of the world; it condemned all stances of terrorism. How can a terrorist wish for heaven? They are directly assigning their place in hell.
Now lets have a cursory look on the causes of terrorism. Terrorism is a crime. It is now become a hard nut to crack for the triangular countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and USA).The causes of terrorism is divided into spheres; internal causes and external causes. Internal causes further divided into socio -economic causes, political causes and religious causes. External causes include Soviet incursion of Afghanistan 1979, Iranian revolution, War on terrorism 9/11 and international conspiracies.
Now lets have a watch on internal causes of terrorism. First of all, socio economic challenges this aggravated the already deteriorating conditions. It includes injustice, inequality, poverty, unemployment, Inflation, food insecurity, threat, dissatisfaction, illiteracy, over abundant population and massive corruption. It is very important to know these causes.
Injustice has been spreading since Independence. After the emergence of Pakistan, as a sovereign nation in the world map, it has encircled with several issues related to injustice. Lower class people are always suffering. No proper system of justice is present. Questions remain unanswered. Millions of people came from Indo Pakistan Subcontinent to fulfill their shattered dreams but all hopes were shattered by feudal class. This mighty class deprived people to obtain their due share. This class joined hand together with chief officers and usurped the rights of uneducated innocent people, who even did not know the hard realities of life.
Second issue which Pakistan has been facing as a threat is massive unemployment. The ratio of unemployment is increasing day by day. It created a big gap between developed nation and developing nation. Employment is now become the need of an hour. Without money you cannot survive in this materialistic world. Terrorism spreads like a giant because of unemployment; innocent people are trapped by terrorists. They give all amenities and facilities in shape of monetary foam. They pay heavy amount to them and in returns fulfill their selfish motives. They ruined the young generation. Proper channel of employment should be introduced. This disease should be removed. It is biggest challenge which is the root of all evils.
Third cause of terrorism is illiteracy, which should be removed instantly. In Pakistan illiterate person can easily be cheated by sharp minded terrorist. They only want to gain their motives. They can easily ruined the lifes of people .they have no feelings for others. They are burning in the own flame of revenge. They can destroy the lives of people. Illiteracy rate should only be decreased by promoting the importance of education. Campaign should be introduced. Government should introduce new ways to spread education in downtrodden areas. Illiteracy is more in Baluchistan, KP, and Fata and in the rural areas of Sindh and Punjab. This evil is eating the roots of Pakistan.
Fourth problem of Pakistan is poverty. Poverty is a term which has been derived from the Latin word pauper means poor. Poverty refers to a condition having less or fewer resources than others. According to various institutional reports I t has been identified that poverty is the main reason of terrorism. According to undp, 65.5 percent population of Pakistan has been earning their livelihood on 2$per day.
Another report of Spdc has revealed clearly the poverty status of Pakistan, 65.5percent in Baluchistan, 58.5 percent in NWFP, 28percent in Punjab, 21 percent in sindh.
According to World Bank report Poverty is spreading as a giants deficiently suffered because of World economic recession.EU countries pushed millions of people in debt trap. Poverty should be controlled with efficacious measures. Government should launch new and effective opportunities to curb the menace of poverty.
Mismanagement of resources is one of the major challenges which Pakistan has been facing. God has provided bundles of natural resources. These natural resources are now on the verge of destruction. Terrorism is devastating the natural beauty and this natural beauty is a channel of obtaining food. Government should pay high attention to this side. These natural blessings of God Should are managed properly.
Lack of accountability is another factor of terrorism. Accountability is very necessary. Without it no one can perform his duties in an organized and proper manner. Absence of accountability is a vacuum. It paves the way for terrorist to fulfill their selfish motives. They are playing their role without any constraints.
Corruption is a threat to sovereignty. It is an alarm for national integration. This term has been defined as; it is a use of force for obtaining personal gains. Since independence Pakistan has been culprit of corruption. This disease is eating the roots of Pakistan. It is spreading like a cancer. Mighty hands are indulged in the promotion of corruption. No sector is saving from this giant. The main reason of corruption is low level of salaries, Unemployment, poverty, illiteracy and overpopulation. These all are promoting people to indulge in corrupt activities. Corruption has the following kinds: bribe, nepotism, favoritism, political patronage, bidding process and so on.
Dissatisfaction is also increasing to large extent. It is creating a sense of insecurity. Terrorists in order to gain their selfish aims spread the wind of turmoil and threat. Dissatisfaction has been increased in every sphere of life.
Food insecurity is also enhancing to great extent. Because of terrorism, Government spends more budgets on the defense of the country. The prices of commodities are increasing. It becomes very difficult for an ordinary lower class people to bear the expenses. Apart from this, Agriculture is the main blood of our country. It also faces adverse impact. Our economy is totally revolves around agriculture sector. Industries are wholly dependable on agriculture sector. Everything is interconnected. Agriculture provides a strong base to our industries. Industries are a major source of revenue generation. Food insecurity is largely dependable on agriculture sector. Government should invest heavy amounts of funds to this sector.
Political causes is also creating vacuum. It also paved the way for terrorist to establish their foot. Political causes included the followings; political instability, corruption within politics, no proper set up, military intervention, Clash between institution, lack of consensus, selfish motives of politicians, feudal dispensation and lack of accountability.
Since independence Pakistan has been facing difficulties in the establishment of political set. Basically, there is no political set up in Pakistan. Everyone is pulling the leg of one another for the sake of self motives. In the initial years of Pakistan, Muslim league faced failure due to feudal class intervention. After passing some years constitutional crises erupted. Pakistan took long seven years to formulate first constitution. Corruption prevailed to large extent. Military intervention to curb the spread of corruption became the fashion of Pakistan. Constant four military interventions destroyed the image of Pakistan. Clash between judiciary and executive class have also come to forefront on several occasions. These all political turmoil paves the way for terrorists.
Religious causes also give sound ground to terrorists. Now a day, religious intolerance is spreading around the country. People are misunderstanding the religion (Islam).The concepts, ideas and values which are presented by Almighty Allah in Holy Quran are totally different from what people understand. This is termed as misconception. Misinterpretation of religion has become a norm of the day. Extremist considered themselves as the followers of Islam but unfortunately they do not comprehend the message of Allah Almighty. The message of Almighty Allah is peace, love, sympathy, kindness and honesty. Terrorists are not following the message of Allah. They are doing Jihad for themselves. Jihad means fight for the cause of Allah. Fight in the way of Allah. Religious intolerance should only be controlled by learning and understanding Quran. Quran is the complete Guideline for the whole world. It is a sacred book which was revealed on Holy Prophet PBUH. Holy Prophet PBUH is the biggest example of love, sympathy and tolerance. Why we dont follow the path of Allah?
Religious Madressahs is a hub of terrorists. They are taught and guided in the madressahs.after the soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, these madressahs were establish to prepare mujahedeen. The overall funding of mujahedeen were under the supervision of USA.they had been prepared to evacuate Afghanistan from the Soviet Invasion. Soviet forces faced defeat from mujahideen.After the failure of soviet forces a vacuum generated in war ridden country. Civil war erupted and continued for six years. This gave birth to drug trafficking, addiction, Weaponisation and other criminal activities. It further aggravated the circumstances. Pakistan had to bear the brunt of it.Weaponization culture entered inside the roots of Pakistan. Thus began a new journey of disaster and turmoil known as Kalashnikovs Culture. Pakistan always supported USA in the hour of griefs always left Pakistan in the hour of pains. After fulfillment of motives, this marriage of convergence ended between USA and Pakistan.
Iranian Revolution also created a sense of conflicts inside the boundaries of Pakistan. Sectarianism conflicts erupted. Shia and Sunni rivalry began which further deteriorated the condition. This also laid the strong foothold of extremist inside the boundaries of Pakistan.
War on terrorism9/11 began, when three hijacked planes collided with the World TRADE CENTE NEW YORK and Pentagon building. This was the cowardly attack which occurred on 9/11.killed several innocent lives of people. People were buried under the roof of largest building. This clearly showed the weakness of USA intelligence agency. President Bush invited the whole international community to participate in so called war on terrorism. Pakistan became the top non NATO ally of Pakistan. Pakistan moves heaven and earth to curb the power of Taliban. After the long year of partnership, between USA and Pakistan, USA has decided to evacuate Afghanistan before 2014.This war on terrorism has claimed millions of innocent lives. Millions of USA military officers were lost their lives. It created havoc around the whole globe.USA will assigned this responsibility to afghan forces.
External influence is also instigating the terrorism. It is viewed on several occasions that India is indulged in creating conspiracies. It created misunderstanding between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Now lets have a cursory look on the factors which are instigating terrorism. These factors included the following; negligence of government, drone strikes, anti terrorism campaigns, injustice, persecution of innocent Muslims of Palestine and Kashmir.
Terrorism puts adverse impact on the life of individuals. It is not only put bad impact on individuals life but also entire society is encircled. Flames and flames are encircling the whole Pakistan. Every city is now under the influence of terrorism. It affects the mental health of people. People fear around the whole country. Is this Pakistan? We were fighting and demanding for. Our beloved father of nation who struggled to built this country so called Quaid e azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Quaideazam condemned bloodshed on every occasion. Unfortunately now at every place in Pakistan Rivers of blood are flowing. Dead bodies are floating in this river, and all are happening because of terrorism. Terrorism spreads havoc .It claimed millions of lives. Dont know how many others will be victimized in upcoming days. It puts bad impact on social life. Now Pakistani society has become the hub of terrorism. Bomb blast has become the norm of the day. Every street comes under the target of just one thumb click. Students are avoiding going to schools. Absences of teachers are reached at its zenith. Overall infrastructure of FATA, KP, and Baluchistan are damaged because of massive terrorist attacks. Girls schools are also targeting. The basic motives of terrorists to damage the educational institutes. They do not give preference to women education. They want to treat women as chattels. They openly negated the concept of women empowerment. The recent attack on 14 year old blameless girl named Malala Yusuf zai was regarded as cowardly act of terrorists. What they want? They actually want illiterate Pakistan. They wanted to spread the condition of Pre Islamic Arab. Pre Islamic Arabs were engaged in nasty circle of vices. They were the rulers of darkness. They were unaware people. After the arrival of light in the shape of Prophet Pbuh the overall world has been transformed. No one knows the hidden motives of extremist except bloodshed. Education is regarded as the blood of a country. Nation cannot grow like a tree in the absence of education. Education provides knowledge. It gives respectful position in social cycle. Absence of knowledge is as similar as absence of humanity in men. God has given full permission to avail knowledge. It is the right of every individual to attain knowledge. Without knowledge, a man is like an animal.
Political turmoil is evident in Pakistan. This gives an opportunity to extremist .This turmoil is further instigating by rebels. Pakistani Government should maintain healthy relationship whether inside or outside the political spheres. It will be beneficial for the whole nation. The recent clash of institution further fuelled the fire. Pakistan should play efficacious role in countering terrorism. Sound policies are required.
Since independence, Pakistan has been facing several downfalls. These downfalls created a gap inside and outside the infrastructure of Pakistan. Terrorism is the disease. It weakened the foundation of Pakistan. From its inception it faced millions of difficulties. Early problems of pakistanwhich included war with india,rehabilitation of millions of people,mismanagement,lack of resources, Water crises, massive corruption, lack of accountability, unjust demarcation of state and mass massacre all were damaging the existence of newly born state. After overcoming from these crises, Pakistan was encircled with several others crises. These crises were democratic setup, constitutional crises, feudalism, military intervention and institutional clashes. After ending these germs, international influence were shacking the weak foundation of Pakistan. Hence it is clear that Pakistan is hanging in the balance.
Economic turmoil is another impact of terrorism. Terrorism put worse impacts on economy of Pakistan. The economy of Pakistan is based on the agriculture sector.agricultre is the blood of Pakistan. It is source of revenue generation. Apart from revenue generation it is the source of food. Agriculture sector provides base to industrial sector. In the absence of agriculture sector, industrial sectors have no existence. Both are interconnected. So in this regard economy of Pakistan is adversely affected.
Lives of people are very much valuable. Almighty Allah has created his creature with love and kindness. Millions of civilians have losted their precious life. God condemned scene of carnage.
Pakistan earns a lot of revenue from tourism. Tourism is regarded as the source of revenue generation. Beauty of Pakistan is very famous around the whole world. This beauty has been damaged by destructions. Tourism in Pakistan now diminishes to great extent. This is another worse impact of terrorism.
Foreign direct investment also declined. This is another disastrous impact of terrorism. We are going back day by day. Efficacious policies are required to cut the throat of terrorism. Now multinational companies are not investing in Pakistan. It reduced our economic graph. The picture of Pakistan in the modernized world is soul trembling. Most of the people are going and settling abroad. Industries are closed. Economic condition reached at zilch. This is Pakistan which is facing the curse of terrorism. Taliban is the slogan of carnage. They are not human beings. They are dragons. They are creating havoc around the whole globe. Name of Pakistan is iniquitous around the whole world.
Now lets have a cursory look on the steps recommended by Pakistani Government to curb the power of terrorism. Pakistan has taken several stances to reduce the intensity of extremism. The efforts of Pakistan military are commendable. Thousands of military officers losted their precious and valuable life .Lots of anti terrorism campaigns have been launched. Several bans on terrorist organizations have been enforced. Numerous operations had done to eliminate terrorists such as Operation Rah-e-Rast and Operation Rah-e- Nija, operation Rah-e haq and operation rah-e-rast swat. Operation Rah-e-Haq was the first battle of swat between Pakistan and the Taliban. It was carried on 2007 in swat. Operation Rah e rast was operated on 30june2009.Operation Rah-e-nijat began on June 19 2009.the place of operation was South Waziristan in FATA.All these operations were carried on to curb the power of Taliban.
Now lets have a glance on the triangular relationship among Pakistan USA and Afghanistan. Pakistan joined hand with USA to curb the power of Taliban. The relationship between USA and Pakistan is well known as the marriage of convergence. Pakistan is the non NATO ally of USa.Pakistan supported USA in every walk of this journey. Since 9/11, Pakistan and USA have been working to curb the power of terrorism. Because of USA strict policies this war creating a sense of turmoil around the whole globe.Dronestrikes are creating tension. Growing civilians causalities are becoming a threat for USA.
Now lets have a cursory look on Afghanistan, USA Wrong policies and our options. America is going to face the worst ever defeat of its history. The crusade that USA launched after 9/11 against Taliban, the much desired victory has not fallen in to his lap in accordance with its plan. The Taliban are proved to be a hard nut to crack for USA.Instead USA realized the ground realities and make strategies for negotiations, it is committing blunders after blunders. The rulers in Pakistan and the national security institutions must keep eye on the situation of various steps taken by USA in Afghanistan. America is committing blunders by holding backdoor negotiations with traliban.they cannot work without Pakistan. It is the bitter reality.
Why does USA Leave Afghanistan? The answer of this question has so many reasons. First, USA and NATO occupation created civilian casualties.
Second, military occupation has hampered humanitarian aid and reconstruction efforts.
Third, Afghan women continue to face violence and oppression under occupation.
Fourth, NATO allies and military leaders are now questioning the occupation.
Fifth, USA troops casualties in Afghanistan are on height.
Sixth, Afghans are now calling for a negotiated end to the war.
Seventh, the occupation contributes to violence.
Now lets have a cursory look on the recommendations for USA to change his policy towards Afghanistan.
Setting permanent timetable for withdrawal. It would be better.USA should immediately cease air strikes because it is the main reason of civilian casualties. It further damaged the image of USA.It should also support negotiated process. Compensate afghan families affected by war.
Thus, Pakistan puts several efforts to curb the danger of terrorism. Terrorism should only be controlled with mutual efforts. It is not a war of one country but it is a war of whole world. Overall international community should come forward to eliminate this gigantic threat. Negotiations are now only the safe solution to curb this menace. We dont want more casualties whether in Pakistan, Afghanistan or USA.Whole nation should come forward to defeat this threat. We should join hands together and safe this globe from violence. Proper and effective measures should be laid down by government. Pakistan is considered as a land of purity. Purity can only be remained if we understand the motto of extremists. Lets pray Almighty Allah to shower his blessings on Pakistan. Save this pious land from the selfish aims of terrorists.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 30°N70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70
|Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان (Urdu)
Motto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green
33°40′N73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167
24°51′36″N67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups(2016)||44.68% Punjabis|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
• Prime Minister
|Shahid Khaqan Abbasi|
• Chairman of the Senate
• Speaker of the Assembly
|Sardar Ayaz Sadiq|
• Chief Justice
|Mian Saqib Nisar|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|14 August 1947|
• Islamic Republic
|23 March 1956|
• Current constitution
|14 August 1973|
|881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)[a] (33rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 census
|244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$1.060 trillion (25th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$304.4 billion (42nd)|
• Per capita
|$1,629  (145th)|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.550|
medium · 147th
|Currency||Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||PK|
Pakistan[b] (Urdu: پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia and crossroads of Middle East and Central Asia. It is the fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 209,970,000 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze AgeIndus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Gupta Empire, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially), and, most recently, the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland for Indian Muslims. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution establishing, alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status, a federal government based in Islamabad consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. The new constitution also stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.
A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the 41st-largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank). It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Economic Cooperation Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Developing Eight, and the G20 developing nations, Group of 24, Group of 77, and ECOSOC. It is also an associate member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto. The suffix ـستان (-stān) is a Persian word meaning the place of, and also recalls the synonymous (and cognate) Sanskrit word sthānaस्थान.
The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan. The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation.
Main article: History of Pakistan
See also: Outline of South Asian history
Early and medieval age
Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Civilization, Mauryan Empire, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Sikh Empire, and Mughal Empire
Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
The Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BCE), characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed and this culture later became well established in the region.Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis. The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.
At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories. The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan.
The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE. The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufimissionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam. These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).
The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region. From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta, both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings. In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors. By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.
During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts. Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over the subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors. Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s. Many historians see this as the start of the region's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture. Such reforms included the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian Civil Service (ICS). Traditional madrasahs—primary institutions of higher learning for Muslims in the subcontinent—were no longer supported by the English Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their financial endowment.
Main articles: Aligarh Movement and British Raj
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over the Indian subcontinent. A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny was the region's major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria. Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in British India that led to racially motivated religious violence in India. The language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims. The Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India. An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the two-nation theory. In contrast to the Indian Congress's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future civil society. In events during World War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-Englishconspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the German Empire. The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.
The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Balochistan. The perceived neglect of muslim interests by Congress led provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In World War II, Jinnah and British-educatedfounding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed's vision.
Main articles: History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pakistan Movement, and Partition of India
The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League. This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact. The British had no alternative except to take Jinnah's views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of India's Muslims. However, the British did not want India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.
As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Raj in India in 1946–47.Nationalists in British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma. As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947(27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of British India. It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh.
In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions while 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims. Around 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India. It was the largest mass migration in human history. Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.
Independence and modern Pakistan
Main articles: Dominion of Pakistan and History of Pakistan
"You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State."
After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament, but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948. Meanwhile, Pakistan's founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general of the party, the nation's firstPrime Minister. With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.
The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten. Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan. Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan. When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied 'most probably'.
Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.
A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust". The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.
Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by army chief, General Ayub Khan. After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in 1967.Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.
In 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan. However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war of liberation.
Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million, a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated. Some academics such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan say both sides committed genocide; others such as Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide. In response to India's support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, preemptive strikes on India by Pakistan's air force, navy